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Ports in proximity

Ports in proximity

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Published by Vitor Caldeirinha
Port competition cooperation
Port competition cooperation

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Published by: Vitor Caldeirinha on Apr 16, 2010
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09/18/2010

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Ports in ProximityOne of the major themes of recent research in the port area has been the issue of competitionand cooperation between ports in close proximity.This question is more for two reasons:1) Due to improved land links to the hinterlands of the ports, in the areas of transportinfrastructure and areas of logistics, transportation, organization and logistics informationsystem, widening them and superimposing them so that customers importers and exportershave in a few years to have options to choose from such as had never before, launching portsin a fierce competition with advantages for the market. This despite being a very distortedcompetition in Europe due to the strong support of states and EU investment.2) With the increasing need for collaboration between nearby ports in order to obtain benefits,investments, infrastructure for their common regions, in order to standardize procedures,information systems, saving investments in joint projects of different nature and to competewith other port regions, creating clusters of marketing by joining forces.The most recent example of these concerns has been expressed in 300 pages of new book byTheo Notteboom, César Ducruet and Peter Langer, "Ports in Proximity - Competition andCoordenation among Adjacent Seaports", which examines, through texts of various authors,rather worldwide issues facing the nearby ports and the various forms that have been used tosolve them.Caballini, Carpaneto and Parola, with regard to the Italian ports and Langen and Nijdam, on thecase of Copenhagen and Malmo, classify the main forms of coordination between nearbyports:a) Without any kind of cooperation (most of the world's ports);b) cooperation in individual projects or functions such as environment, safety, marketing andinfrastructure (San Pedro Bay Ports, Algeciras / Tangier Med, Ligurian Ports, NYNJ PA andAlbany in multimodal links, New Orleans and the Lower Mississippi Ports Marketing, Shanghaiand Yangtze Ports, Port of Stockholm, Sodertalje and Malarhamnar);c) Body autonomous port authorities in charge of specific functions limited in order to obtainpublic financing, marketing, research studies, development of common infrastructure andlogistics (Flemish Ports Commission, the Malta Maritime Authority, BremenPorts, CampaniaPorts);d) Extending the jurisdiction of the Port Authority of smaller ports by integrating total(Civitavecchia PA, Valenciaport);
 
 e) Joint Port Authority in full integration with business objectives (PA of NewYork / New Jersey,Vancouver Fraser PA, Copenhagen and Malmo PA CMP - by agreement between themunicipalities):f) Port Authorities National / Regional (South Africa PA, Indian Ports Corporation, QueenslandPort Corporation, several countries of North Africa)The case of CMP (Copenhagen and Malmo Port) does not appear, according to Langen, it couldtake to other ports in the same way, since both are small ports are "service ports" and not"landlord ports", a port has expansion opportunities and the other has limited the expansionand creation of the Oresund Bridge has created unique opportunities for integration withadvantages for both cities and countries, recognized by the two ports.Concludes that there must be a strong economic reason for business cooperation betweenports, which has the agreement of the parties and the ports should focus on their integrationwith a clear strategy and single well defined.Already Frémont and Lavaud, point to the advantages of autonomy in the case of the ports of Dunkirk, being that close to two ports selected by the oligopoly of the two major global playersof containers, Antwerp and Rotterdam, may be an option for independent operators andcompetitors that take place in those ports, seizing the opportunity to increase choice forcustomers and market competition.Caballini et al. state that the Ligurian Ports, who never cooperated, they now have the regionto promote their collaboration in the creation of master plans and projects of common accessand common infrastructure inland to obtain financing, and this cooperation for the creation of an agency regional in scope. However, they argue that further integration of the ports wouldbe opposed by port authorities, it is preferable to adopt an ad-hoc body to lobby thegovernment funding, coordinate the plan of port infrastructure in ports with public money (inthis case would have to take special care with regard to antitrust laws) and strengthening thepowers of port authorities in national legislation.Slack et al. compare the evolution of decentralization of governance and Canadian Frenchports in recent years, providing greater autonomy to the ports in both cases and trying toapproach them from their local communities and regional authorities and conclude thatseveral ports, may not release mechanisms for ensure free competition between these ports,while ports in open competition can not do without some form of collaboration with ports intheir vicinity. The question is at what level each function of the ports must be managed: theplanning of public investment in port infrastructure and access to the hinterland must be at aregional or state level? The commercial management of the terminals must be at the dealers?

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