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News Letter

News Letter

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Published by Satyendra N Yadaw
MONTHLY-NEWS LETTER
MONTHLY-NEWS LETTER

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Published by: Satyendra N Yadaw on Apr 17, 2010
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ISSUE
HIV RESEARCHERS SOLVE KEY PUZZLE AFTER 20 YEARS OF TRYING
esearchers have made a breakthrough in HIV research that had eluded scientists for over 20years, potentially leading to better treatments for HIV, in a study published today in the
 journal Nature. The researchers, Dr Peter Cherepanov, the lead author of the study from theDepartment of Medicine at Imperial College London and his collaborators at Harvard University,have grown a crystal that reveals the structure of an enzyme called integrase, which is found inretroviruses like HIV. When HIV infects someone, it uses integrase to paste a copy of its geneticinformation into their DNA. Prior to the new study, which was funded by the Medical ResearchCouncil and the US National Institutes of Health,many researchers had tried and failed to work outthe three-dimensional structure of integrasebound to viral DNA. New antiretroviral drugs forHIV work by blocking integrase, but scientists didnot understand exactly how these drugs were working or how to improve them. Researchers canonly determine the structure of this kind of molecular machinery by obtaining high quality crystals. For the new study, researchers grew a crystal using a version of integrase borrowed froma little-known retrovirus called Prototype Foamy  Virus (PFV). Based on their knowledge of PFV integrase and its function, they were confident that it was very similar to its HIV counterpart. Over the course of four years, the researchers carried out over40,000 trials, out of which they were able to grow just seven kinds of crystals. Only one of these wasof sufficient quality to allow determination of the three-dimensional structure. After growing thecrystals in the lab, the researchers used the giant synchrotron machine at the Diamond Light Sourcein South Oxfordshire to collect X-ray diffraction data from these crystals, which enabled them todetermine the long-sought structure. The researchers then soaked the crystals in solutions of theintegrase inhibiting drugs Raltegravir (also known as Isentress) and Elvitegravir and observed for thefirst time how these antiretroviral drugs bind to and inactivate integrase. The new study shows thatretroviral integrase has quite a different structure to that which had been predicted based on earlierresearch. Availability of the integrase structure means that researchers can begin to fully understandhow existing drugs that inhibit integrase are working, how they might be improved, and how to stopHIV developing resistance to them.
limate change is transforming the Arctic environment faster than expected and accelerating the disappearance of sea ice, scientists said on Friday in giving their early findings from the 
biggest-ever study of Canada's changing north. The research project involved more than 370 scientists from 27 countries who collectively spent 15 months, starting in June 2007, aboard a research vessel above the Arctic Circle. It marked the first time a ship has stayed mobile in Canada's high Arctic for an entire winter.Climate change is happening much faster than our most pessimistic models expected, said David Barber, a professor at the University of Manitoba and the study's lead investigator, at a news conference in Winnipeg. Models predicted only a few years ago that the Arctic would be ice- free in summer by the year 2100, but the increasing pace of climate change now suggests it could happen between 2013 and 2030,Barber said.Scientists link higher Arctic temperatures and melting sea ice to the  greenhouse gas emissions blamed for global warming. The Arctic is considered a type of early-warning system of climate change for the rest of the world.
 Arctic Climate Changing Fast 
SIKKIM
HIV Researchers -
P.1
Arctic Climate Changing Fast -
P.1
Editor's Message - P. 1Do You Know What is Allergy ? -
P. 2
Stem Cell Research -
P. 2
Genetically Modified Organism -
P. 3
Managed Wolf Population -
P. 3
Bio Fun Facts -
P. 3
Frankefood Fears -
P. 4
Researchers Fight World Hunger -
P. 4
Population & Family Planning -
P. 4-5
Biotechnology & Mech. Engg. -
P. 6
Golden age of GM Crops -
P. 6
Major Biotech Headlines - P. 7Department of Biotechnology -
P. 8
Indo-Netherlands research Project -
P. 8
Editor’s Desk 
Dear Readers,We are very pleased to take a maiden stepahead in presenting the first edition of our newsletter, for our readers with the vision tocreate a new forum for exchange of informationon all aspects. I thank all the members of EIILMU, with whose joint as well as creativecontributions; it was possible to launch theNewsletter into its existing state.EU-SPECTRUM is driven by the need toapprise our readers about the educationalevents, functions or extracurricular activities or rigorous assessment of our students heldconsistently at the campus in the process of building personality traits as well as unfoldingthe secrets of subconscious mind with anearnest need to create Entrepreneurs with avision to sense opportunities and take risks inthe face of uncertainty to open new markets,design products and develop innovativeprocesses.We would appreciate new and creative ideas of our faculties, students as well as our stakeholders so as to make EU-SPECTRUM as oneof the most successful forum for exchange of information.
Dr. Prolay Das,HOD Dept. Biotechnology & Environmental Science 
 um
EIILM University Newsletter
Special Biotech Issue
First ISO 9001: 14001 Certified University In India.
www.eiilmuniversity.ac.in Email: info@eiilmuniversity.ac.inI
e are pleased to inform everyone that our Final Year M.Sc. Biotechnology and M.Sc.Environmental Science students have been successfully placed for their summer training 
 W 
and dissertation in various reputed Institutes and organization. Best wishes to all thestudents for a successful start up and a bright career. We also congratulate Ms. Ongmu Tamang andMs. Nishika Jaishee for their coordinated effort to achieve this goal.
Student Name Course of Study Institute / Industry for summer training
Rani kumari Sinha M.Sc. BiotechnologyCipla Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd.,KumreTenzing W. BhutiadoCipla Pharmaceuticals Pvt.Ltd.,KumrePratima PradhandoICAR, Gangtok,Dept. of Biotechnology, IndiPurnamaya KarkidoICAR, Gangtok,Dept. of Biotechnology, IndiDilip Pandit doICAR, Gangtok,Dept. of Biotechnology, IndiChandan RawatdoICAR, Gangtok,Dept. of Biotechnology, IndiLalit MohatodoIndichem Pharmaceuticals pvt. Ltd, KumreSumiran Poudyal doCitrus dieback Research station, Kalimpong.Bishal Sharmado Zydus Cadilla Pharmaceuticals Ltd, RangpoNarmada SharmaM.Sc. Envi. & EcologyYuksom Breweries Pvt Ltd,YuksomDhanMaya RaidoYuksom Breweries Pvt Ltd Yuksom We take this is opportunity tothank Mr. Mahadev Chettri, GM, Citrus Dieback Research, Mr. Ajit singh, Head HR, Zydus Cadilla,Mr. Deepak Gupta, Chief Chemist, YUKSOM Breweries, Dr. H. Rahman, ICAR, Joint Director,Mr. Ramesh Kumar, GM, CIPLA for extending this golden opportunity to our students to gain valuable inputs from your esteemed organization.
s holder of Nuffic Grantin the Netherlands
I
Fellowship Programme forher Ph.D studies on “temporaldynamics of herbivore inducedresponses in Indian mustard.Her studies will throw light onalternate strategies to controlinsect pests in anenvironmental friendly manner.Her research supervisors are Dr. A. Sankara Reddy, ViceChancellor, EIILM University,Sikkim from India and Prof.Nicole Van Dam (RadboundUniversity, Nimjegen and Prof.Lousie Vet (NetherlandsInstitute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW) / WageningenUniversity, Netherlands. Vartika Mathur, hassuccessfully acquired a European Mobility grant of theInternational Doctoral Collegeof the European University of Brittany (IDC-EUB) toperform part of her PhD-research at the university of Rennes, France from April- August 2010.
Department of Biotechnology andEnvironmental Science
Admission & Administrative Campus:
Jorethang, District Namchi,Sikkim-737121 (India),
Tel.:
03595 - 276947 - 48,
Main Campus:
8th Mile, Budang, Malabassey, West Sikkim-737121 (India)
SIKKIM
Indo-Netherlandsresearch projectat EIILM University
   O  n   l  y   P  r   i  v  a  t  e   C   i  r  c  u   l  a  t   i  o  n
Ms. Vartika Mathur, Asst. Professor,Dept. of Zoology,S.V. College(Delhi University),
Volume - I, Feb 2010 Issue
UGC Recognised & DEC Approved
 
y far the most common genetically represents progress.The root of geneticmodified (GM) organisms are crop engineering in crops lies in the 1977 discovery 
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plants. But the technology has now that soil bug Agrobacterium tumefaciens canbeen applied to almost all forms of life, be used as a tool to inject potentially usefulfrom pets that glow under UV light to foreign genes into plants. With the help of thatbacteria which form HIV-blocking "living microbe, and other gene-implantationcondoms" and from pigs bearing spinach technologies such as electroporation, and genegenes to goats that produce spider silk.guns, geneticists have developed a multitude of new crop types.Most of these are modified toGM tomatoes, as puree, first appeared onbe pest, disease or herbicide resistant, andBritish supermarket shelves in 1996 (a include: soya, wheat, corn (maize), oilseed rapedifferent fresh GM tomato first appeared(canola), cotton, sugar beet, walnuts, potatoes,in the US in 1994), but the consumerpeanuts, squashes, tomatoes, tobacco, peas,furor that surrounded GM technology didsweet peppers, lettuce and onions, among not erupt until February 1999. This wasothers. The bacterial gene Bt is one of the mostbecause a controversial study suggested thatcommonly inserted. It produces an insecticidala few strains of GM potatoes might betoxin that is harmless to people.toxic to laboratory rats. Those experiments,subsequently criticized by other experts, Supporters of GM technology argue that were carried out in Scotland by biochemist engineered crops - such as vitamin A-boosted Arpad Pustzai. What followed was a golden rice or protein-enhanced potatoes - canEuropean anti-GM food campaign of near improve nutrition, that drought- or salt-religious fervor. GM crops are today very resistant varieties can flourish in poorrare in Europe, strict labeling laws and conditions and stave off world hunger, andregulations are in place for food. Some that insect-repelling crops protect the African nations have also opposed enviengineered crops, even to the point of ronrejecting international food aid containing menthem. GM produce has been taken up with t by far less fuss in the US (where it does not minihave to be labelled), India, China, Canada, mizi Argentina, Australia and elsewhere. ng However controversy over a type of GM pesticorn - only approved for animal feed - cide which turned up in taco shells and other use.products stirred opinion in the US.OthThe human race has methodically er plants have been engineered to improveimproved crop plants through selective flavor, increase shelf life, increase hardiness andbreeding for many thousands of years, but to be allergen-free (see also: hay fever-freegenetic engineering allows that time-grass). Geneticists have even created a no-tearsconsuming process to be accelerated and onion to banish culinary crying, and novelexotic traits from unrelated species to be caffeine-free coffee plants.introduced. But not everyone agrees this is
n allergic reaction is the body's way of involve the whole body.responding to an "invader." When the body Minor injuries,hot or cold temperatures,exercise,or even 
A
senses a foreign substance,called an antigen,the emotions may be triggers of allergic reactions.immune system is triggered. The immune system Often,the specific allergen cannot be identified unless normally protects the body from harmful agents such as  you have had a similar reaction in the past.bacteria and toxins. Its overreaction to a harmless Allergies and the tendency to have allergic reactions run substance (an allergen) is called a hypersensitivity in some families. You may have allergies even if they do reactiono  ,r an allergic reaction.not run in your family.Anything which starts allergic reaction can be called an People with certain medical conditions are more likely allergen. Common dust,pollen,plants,medications,certain to have allergic reactions: foods,insect venoms,animal dander,viruses,or bacteria are examples of allergens.Prevention from allergic reaction Reactions may occur in one spots  ,uch as a small skin rash Most people learn to recognize their allergy triggers; or itchy eyeso,r all overa,s in a whole body rash.they also learn to avoid them.A reaction may include one or several symptoms.Skin testing is the most widely used and the most helpful. There are several different methods,but all In rare cases,an allergic reaction can be life-threatening involve exposing the skin to small amounts of various (known as anaphylaxis). Each year in the United States,substances and observing the reactions over time.over 400 people die from anaphylactic reactions to  penicillin,and nearly 100 Americans die from Blood tests (RAST) generally identify IgE antibodies to anaphylactic reactions to insects,according to the specific antigens.Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA).Other tests involve eliminating certain allergens from Most allergic reactions are much less serious,such as a  your environment and then reintroducing them to see if  rash from poison ivy or sneezing from hay fever. The a reaction occurs.type of reaction depends on the person but is sometimes People with a history of serious or anaphylactic unpredictable.reactions may be prescribed an autoinjector,sometimes Allergies are very common. The AAFA states allergies called a bee-sting kit. This contains a premeasured dose account for more than 17 million visits to the doctor each of epinephrine (EpiPen is one brand name). You carry  year in USA. More than half  this with you and inject of all allergy visits are for  yourself with medication seasonal allergies. More than immediately if you are 7 million people visit their exposed to a substance that doctor for skin allergies causes you to have a severe annually,and food allergies allergic reaction.account for 30,000 visits to Allergic Reaction Treatment the emergency room Avoid triggers! If you know Causes of Allergic Reaction  you have an allergic reaction to Almost anything can trigger  peanuts,for example,do not eat an allergic reaction.them and go out of your way to avoid foods prepared with The body's immune system or around peanuts .involves the white blood cells,which produce Self-care at home is not antibodies.When the body is exposed to an antigen,a enough in severe reactions. A severe reaction is a medical complex set of reactions begins.emergency.The white blood cells produce an antibody specific to Do not attempt to treat or "wait out" severe reactions at that antigen. This is called "sensitization.” home. Go immediately to a hospital emergency department.The job of the antibodies is to detect and help destroy substances that cause disease and sickness. In allergic If no one is available to drive you right away,call an reactions,the antibody is called immunoglobulin E or ambulance for emergency medical transport.IgE.Use your epinephrine auto-injector if you have been This antibody promotes production and release of   prescribed one by your doctor due to previous allergic chemicals and hormones called "mediators."  reactions (see "prevention" below).Mediators have effects on local tissue and organs in Slight reactions with mild symptoms usually respond to addition to activating more white blood cell defenders.nonprescription allergy medications.It is these effects that cause the symptoms of the An oral antihistamine,such as diphenhydramine reaction.(Benadryl). Caution: These may make you too drowsy If the release of the mediators is sudden or extensive,the to drive or operate machinery safely. They can affect allergic reaction may also be sudden and severe,and concentration and interfere with children's learning in anaphylaxis may occur.school. These medications should be taken for only a few days.Your allergic reactions are unique to you. For example, your body may have learned to be allergic to shellfish or For rashes,an antiinflammatory steroid cream such as other foods from repeated exposure. Most people are hydrocortisone can be used.aware of their particular allergy triggers and reactions.For small,localized skin reactions,try cold,wet cloths or Certain foods,vaccines and medications,latex rubber,ice. Try applying a bag of frozen vegetables wrapped in aspirin,shellfish,dust, pollen,mold,animal dander,and poison  a towel as an ice pack.ivy are well-known allergens.Bee stingsf   ,ire ant stingsp,enicillina  ,nd peanuts are known for causing dramatic reactions that can be serious and 
Genetically Modified Organism:Acceptance And Controversy
esearchers writing in the February issueof BioScience propose reintroducing 
small, managed populations of wolvesinto national parks and other areas in order torestore damaged ecosystems. The populations would not be self-sustaining, and may consist of a single pack. But the BioScience authors suggestthat even managed populations could bring ecological, educational, recreational, scientific,and economic benefits.
Managed wolf populations couldrestore ecosystems
The authors, Daniel S. Licht, of the National Park Service, and four coauthors, note that research inrecent years has shown the importance of wolvesto ecosystems in which they naturally occur. Forexample, the presence of wolves usually leads tofewer ungulates, which in turn generally meansmore plant biomass and biodiversity. Wolves canalso increase tourism.Licht and his coauthors believe that wolvesintroduced for the purpose of ecosystemstewardship, rather than for the creation of self-sustaining wolf populations, could enhance publicunderstanding and appreciation of the animals. Advances in real-time animal tracking madepossible through global positioning systemtechnology, as well as the use of contraception andsurgery, could help in controlling the growth of introduced populations. This approach mightmitigate concerns about depredation of livestock and game, attacks on pets, and human safety,Licht and colleagues maintain. Fences could alsoplay a role. Wolves were introduced to Coronation Island, Alaska, for ecosystem restoration in 1960, andthey successfully controlled deer there before the wolf population grew and subsequently crashed.Licht and his coauthors suggest that with moreintensive management this unfavorable outcomecould have been avoided, and that desirable resultscould be expected at many sites in North America and elsewhere, provided there are sufficient prey.
DO YOU KNOW WHAT IS ALLERGY?O YOU KNOW WHAT IS ALLERGY?
Stem Cell Research Gets A ShotIn The Arm
n march 9,2009 wrote in his order. HeUS president conceded that for the past
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Barak obama eight year the authority of thesigned an epoch making department oexecutive order “removing Health(NIH),to fund andbarriers to responsible conduct human embryonicscientific research involving stem cells research has beenhuman stem cells”.It is limited by presidentialindeed a shot in the arm of actions. On augustthe beleaguered stem cells 9,2001,Bush decided thatresearchers. Steam cells federal funds may b awardedare,”blank slate” cells which for research using humancan devide and renew over embryonic stem cells if “Thelong periods.they ccan derivation process (whichdevelop into specializedcell,tissue or organ and caneffectively serve as a sort of repair system for thebody.medical specialistbelieve that stem cells haveunlimited potential whichcan be used to returnmemory to Alzheimer's,thepatients to enable wheelchair bound patientto walk or to replace begins with the destruction of damaged skin of patients. the embryo) was initiatedThe possibility of miracle prior to 9.00 P.M.EDT oncures lies tweaking the cells to august 9,2001;the stem cellsdevelop into new insuline-must have been derived fromproducing cells to treat or an embryo that was createdeven cure diabetics, for reproductive purposes andcardiomyocytes to replace was no longer needed.”damaged heart tissue orStem Cells Are Blank Statecartilage cells to treatCells Which Can Devide Andarthrities, new nerve cellRenew Over Long Periodconnections to treat diseasesScientists have to wait till new such as Alzheimer's,guidelines governing whatParkinson's andresearch can qualify for federal Amyotrophic lateralsupport are issued by thesclerosis(ALS), a progressiveNational Institutes of Health.degenerative diseases thatThere is another roadblock inattacks the motor neutrons inthe form of Dickey-Wickerthe spinal cord;it leads toamendant which prohibitsdebilitating paralysis space of the use of federal funds tolimbs and respiration.support scientific work that Appropriately morphed steminvolves the creation of cells may replace nerve cellsembryos.damaged due to spinal injury.Scientist who want to create“Advances over the pastembryos-and extracts stemdecade in this promising cells – matched to patientsscientific field have been with specific diseases,can notencouraging, leading toget federal funding tillbroad aggrement in theCongress withdraws thescientific community theamendment.research should be supportedby Federal funds”,Obama 
Raj Rani (B.tech-Biotech, SEM-II),EIILM University 
Rizwan ahmed khan(Lecturer, Department of Biotechnology & Environmental Science),
EIILM University 
Deepankar Moktan, (Btech Biotech sem-IV),EIILM University 
 Ms. Nishika Jaishee,Lecturer, EIILM Univeristy 
Bio Fun Facts: Do You Know?
1.Dolphins cannot stay long underwater because they breathe through their blowholes above water. 2.The biggest egg in the world is the ostrich egg. It could take as many as 30 chicken eggs to equal its volume, and up to 2 hours to hard boil. An ostrich egg is also the largest existing single cell. 3.A kind of jellyfish (Turritopsis nutricula) upon reaching adulthood can transform itself back to childhood by converting its cells. It may repeat this to live forever.4.The little Alaskan Wood Frog is capable of reviving itself  back to normal life after staying completely frozen for months, during which its heart, brain and other organs stop functioning.5.Some species of earthworm can have as many as 10 hearts.6.To avoid predators, a mother Slow Loris licks its offspring with poison before sending them off to search for food.7.There are more species of fish in Amazon river than in the entire Atlantic Ocean (Over 2,000).8.When the queen of a clownfish school dies, a male clownfish changes its gender to become female and takes her place.9.The acceleration rate of a flea's jump is 20 times that of space shuttle during launch.10. While we're awake, our brain generates enough power to illuminate a light bulb of 25 watts.
32
 
optimistically believed that the population slight lowering of the 1981-91 population growth Studies have found that most couples in fact regard would continue to grow at roughly the same rate.rate to moderate successes of the family planning family planning positively. However, the commonprogram. In FY 1986, the number of reproductive-fertility pattern in India diverges from the two-childImplicitly, the government believed that India age couples was 132.6 million, of whom only 37.5 family that policy makers hold as ideal. Womencould repeat the experience of the developedpercent were estimated to be protected effectively by continue to marry young; in the mid-1990s, they nations where industrialization and a rise in thesome form of contraception. A goal of the seventh average just over eighteen years of age at marriage.standard of living had been accompanied by a plan was to achieve an effective couple protection rate When women choose to be sterilized, financialdrop in the population growth rate. In the 1950s,of 42 percent, requiring an annual increase of 2 inducements, although helpful, are not the principalexisting hospitals and health care facilities madepercent in effective use of contraceptives.incentives. On average, those accepting sterilizationbirth control information available, but therealready have four living children, of whom two are was no aggressive effort to encourage the use of The heavy centralization of India's family planning sons.contraceptives and limitation of family size. By programs often prevents due consideration fromthe late 1960s, many policy makers believed that being given to regional differences. Centralization is The strong preference for sons is a deeply heldthe high rate of population growth was the encouraged to a large extent by reliance on central cultural ideal based on economic roots. Sons not only greatest obstacle to economic development. The government funding. As a result, many of the goals assist with farm labor as they are growing up (as dogovernment began a massive program to lower and assumptions of national population control daughters) but they provide labor in times of illnessthe birth rate from forty-one per 1,000 to a target programs do not correspond exactly with local and unemployment and serve as their parents' only of twenty to twenty-five per 1,000 by the mid-attitudes toward birth control. At the Jamkhed security in old age. Surveys done by the New Delhi1970s. The National Population Policy adopted Project in Maharashtra, which has been in operation Operations Research Group in 1991 indicated that asin 1976 reflected the growing consensus among since the late 1970s and covers approximately 175 many as 72 percent of rural parents continue to havepolicy makers that family planning would enjoy villages, the local project directors noted that it children until at least two sons are born; theonly limited success unless it was part of an required three to four years of education through preference for more than one son among urbanintegrated program aimed at improving the direct contact with a couple for the idea of family parents was tabulated at 53 percent. Once these goalsgeneral welfare of the population. The policy planning to gain acceptance. Such a timetable was have been achieved, birth control may be used or,makers assumed that excessive family size was not compatible with targets. However, much was especially in agricultural areas, it may not if part and parcel of poverty and had to be dealt learned about policy and practice from the Jamkhed additional child labor, later adult labor for the family, with as integral to a general development Project. The successful use of women's clubs as a is deemed desirable.strategy. Education about the population means of involving women in community-wide A significant result of this eagerness for sons is thatproblem became part of school curriculum under family planning activities impressed the statethe Indian population has a deficiency of females.the Fifth Five-Year Plan (FY 1974-78). Cases of government to the degree that it set about organizing Slightly higher female infant mortality rates (seventy-government-enforced sterilization made many such clubs in every village in the state. The projectnine per 1,000 versus seventy-eight per 1,000 forquestion the propriety of state-sponsored birth also serves as a pilot to test ideas that the governmentmales) can be attributed to poor health care,control measures, however.wants to incorporate into its programs. Governmentabortions of female fetuses, and female infanticide.medical staff members have been sent to Jamkhed forDuring the 1980s, an increased number of family Human rights activists have estimated that there aretraining, and the government has proposed that theplanning programs were implemented through at least 10,000 cases of female infanticide annually project assume the task of selecting and training the state governments with financial assistance throughout India. The cost of theoretically illegalgovernment health workers for an area of 2.5 millionfrom the central government. In rural areas, the dowries and the loss of daughters to their in-laws'people.programs were further extended through a families are further disincentives for some parents tonetwork of primary health centers and Another important family planning program is the have daughters. Sons, of course continue to carry onsubcenters. By 1991, India had more than Project for Community Action in Family Planning. the family line (see Family Ideals, ch. 5). The 1991150,000 public health facilities through which Located in Karnataka, the project operates in 154 census revealed that the national sex ratio hadfamily planning programs were offered (see project villages and 255 control villages. All project declined from 934 females to 1,000 males in 1981 toHealth Care, this ch.). Four special family villages are of sufficient size to have a health 927 to 1,000 in 1991. In only one state--Kerala, planning projects were implemented under the subcenter, although this advantage is offset by the fact state with low fertility and mortality rates and theSeventh Five-Year Plan (FY 1985-89). One was that those villages are the most distant from the area's nation's highest literacy--did females exceed males.the All-India Hospitals Post-partum Programme primary health centers. As at Jamkhed, the project is The census found, however, that female lifeat district- and subdistrict-level hospitals. much assisted by local voluntary groups, such as the expectancy at birth had for the first time exceeded Another program involved the reorganization of women's clubs. The local voluntary groups either that for males.primary health care facilities in urban slum areas, provide or secure sites suitable as distribution depotsIndia's high infant mortality and elevated mortality  while another project reserved a specified for condoms and birth control pills and also makein early childhood remain significant stumbling number of hospital beds for tubal ligature arrangements for the operation of sterilizationblocks to population control (see Health Conditions,operations. The final program called for the camps. Data provided by the Project for Community this ch.). India's fertility rate is decreasing, however,renovation or remodelling of intrauterine device Action in Family Planning show that importantand, at 3.4 in 1994, it is lower than those of its(IUD) rooms in rural family welfare centers achievements have been realized in the field of immediate neighbors (Bangladesh had a rate of 4.5attached to primary health care facilities.population control. By the mid-1980s, for example,and Pakistan had 6.7). The rate is projected to43 percent of couples were using family planning, a Despite these developments in promoting family decrease to 3.0 by 2000, 2.6 by 2010, and 2.3 by full 14 percent above the state average. The projectplanning, the 1991 census results showed that 2020.has significantly improved the status of women,India continued to have one of the most rapidly During the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, the growth rateinvolving them and empowering them to bring aboutgrowing populations in the world. Between 1981had formed a sort of plateau. Some states, such aschange in their communities. This contribution isand 1991, the annual rate of population growthKerala, Tamil Nadu, and, to a lesser extent, Punjab,important because of the way in which the deeply  was estimated at about 2 percent. The crude birthMaharashtra, and Karnataka, had made progress inentrenched inferior status of women in many rate in 1992 was thirty per 1,000, only a smalllowering their growth rates, but most did not. Undercommunities in India negates official efforts tochange over the 1981 level of thirty-four persuch conditions, India's population may not stabilizedecrease the fertility rate.1,000. However, some demographers credit thisuntil 2060.
ritics fear that what they call widely contaminated. Another study "Frankenstein foods" could proved that pollen from GM plants
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have unforeseen, adverse can be carried on the wind for tens of health effects on consumers, kilometres.producing toxic proteins (andMany experts agree that insect-allergens) or transferring antibiotic-repelling plants will also speed theresistance and other genes to humanevolution of insecticide-resistant pests.gut bacteria to damaging effect. ButNormal crops are often grownthere has been little evidence to back alongside transgenic ones as refuges forup such risks so far.the pests, in an attempt to preventMore plausible threats are that their accelerated evolution intomodified crops could become "superpests".insidious superweeds, or that they Environmentalists also argue thatcould accidentally breed with wildgrowing GM crops affects farmlandplants or other crops -genetically polluting theenvironment. Thiscould be a potentially serious problem if "pharm" crops,engineered to producepharmaceutical drugs,accidentally cross breed with food varieties (orseeds become mixedup).Large numbers of fieldtrials, carried out by theUK government and others, reveal that biodiversity. Field trials to test for thisgene transfer does occur. One 2002 have produced mixed results - somestudy showed that transgenes had suggesting that GM crops actually spread from US to traditional maize boost biodiversity. varieties in Mexico. A 2004 study revealed that conventional varieties of major US food crops have also been
“FRANKENFOOD” FEARSFRANKENFOOD” FEARS
Population and Family PlanningPolicy:
India 
Department of Energy, production and increaseUniversity of Missouri-foodstuffs around the world."Columbia scientists, inIn addition to mapping thecollaboration withsoybean genome, MUresearchers at otherscientists have created a institutions, mapped thedatabase of soybeansoybean genome to maketranscription factors, whichcrop improvements andregulate the expression of provide a key reference forgenes and can turn genes on ormore than 20,000 differentoff. The database,species of plants. NguyenSoybeanDB, can be accessedalready has begunthrough a web server andcollaborating with animalcontains information such asscience and nutrition expertsprotein sequences, proteinto modify soybeans added tofamily classifications and webanimal feeds that couldlinks to other proteinincrease the health value of databases.meat. Specifically, he isThe genome research has beenlooking at ways to impartpublished in the January issuecertain antioxidants that areof Nature magazine, andknown to decrease theNguyen's research on soybeanfrequency of cancer, anddrought-tolerance has beenproteins from soybeans intopublished in Plant, Cell andthe meat. Nguyen also isEnvironment. Faculty studying the root system of members from the MUsoybeans and how they College of Agriculture Foodrespond to drought. He'sand Natural Resources,pinpointing which proteinsCollege of Engineering andor genes contribute tothe Christopher S. Bond Lifedrought tolerance.Sciences Center contributed“Perhaps the most exciting to the study. Nguyen wasthing that we have found forrecently elected as a Fellow of the soybean community isthe American Association forthe gene that confirmsthe Advancement of Scienceresistance to the devastating (AAAS) for his research Asian Soybean Rust disease,"contributions in plantNguyen said. "In countriesgenetics and genomics and where this rust is wellthe national and internationalestablished, soybean lossesrecognition of his researchcan range from 10 to 80and leadership in plant abioticpercent. Improved soybeanstress, most notably instrains resistant to the diseasedrought tolerance. will greatly benefit
4
Nithil Raika Thapa (B.tech Biotech Sem-IV),
EIILM University 
n 2009, soybeans represented an almost development, productive characteristics,$30 billion industry in the U.S. alone, disease resistance, seed quality and
I
making soybeans the second-most nutrition, which could lead to extensive cropprofitable crop next to corn. Worldwide, improvements. Funded by the U.S.soybeans have been used in human foodsand livestock feed for centuries and havebeen a key component in industrialproducts, such as plastics and soy biodiesel, an environmentally friendly fuel. A team of researchers, including University of Missouri researchers,recently completed a study identifying 1.1 million base pairs of DNA in thesoybean genome, including more than90 distinct traits that affect plant
Researchers fight world hungerby mapping the soybean genome
opulation growth has earliest national, government-long been a concern sponsored family planning 
P
of the government, efforts in the developing and India has a lengthy world. The annual populationhistory of explicit population growth rate in the previouspolicy. In the 1950s, the decade (1941 to 1951) hadgovernment began, in a been below 1.3 percent, andmodest way, one of the government planners
Rizwan ahmed khan(Lecturer, Department of Biotechnology & Environmental Science),
EIILM University 
5

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