y far the most common genetically represents progress.The root of geneticmodified (GM) organisms are crop engineering in crops lies in the 1977 discovery
plants. But the technology has now that soil bug Agrobacterium tumefaciens canbeen applied to almost all forms of life, be used as a tool to inject potentially usefulfrom pets that glow under UV light to foreign genes into plants. With the help of thatbacteria which form HIV-blocking "living microbe, and other gene-implantationcondoms" and from pigs bearing spinach technologies such as electroporation, and genegenes to goats that produce spider silk.guns, geneticists have developed a multitude of new crop types.Most of these are modified toGM tomatoes, as puree, first appeared onbe pest, disease or herbicide resistant, andBritish supermarket shelves in 1996 (a include: soya, wheat, corn (maize), oilseed rapedifferent fresh GM tomato first appeared(canola), cotton, sugar beet, walnuts, potatoes,in the US in 1994), but the consumerpeanuts, squashes, tomatoes, tobacco, peas,furor that surrounded GM technology didsweet peppers, lettuce and onions, among not erupt until February 1999. This wasothers. The bacterial gene Bt is one of the mostbecause a controversial study suggested thatcommonly inserted. It produces an insecticidala few strains of GM potatoes might betoxin that is harmless to people.toxic to laboratory rats. Those experiments,subsequently criticized by other experts, Supporters of GM technology argue that were carried out in Scotland by biochemist engineered crops - such as vitamin A-boosted Arpad Pustzai. What followed was a golden rice or protein-enhanced potatoes - canEuropean anti-GM food campaign of near improve nutrition, that drought- or salt-religious fervor. GM crops are today very resistant varieties can flourish in poorrare in Europe, strict labeling laws and conditions and stave off world hunger, andregulations are in place for food. Some that insect-repelling crops protect the African nations have also opposed enviengineered crops, even to the point of ronrejecting international food aid containing menthem. GM produce has been taken up with t by far less fuss in the US (where it does not minihave to be labelled), India, China, Canada, mizi Argentina, Australia and elsewhere. ng However controversy over a type of GM pesticorn - only approved for animal feed - cide which turned up in taco shells and other use.products stirred opinion in the US.OthThe human race has methodically er plants have been engineered to improveimproved crop plants through selective flavor, increase shelf life, increase hardiness andbreeding for many thousands of years, but to be allergen-free (see also: hay fever-freegenetic engineering allows that time-grass). Geneticists have even created a no-tearsconsuming process to be accelerated and onion to banish culinary crying, and novelexotic traits from unrelated species to be caffeine-free coffee plants.introduced. But not everyone agrees this is
n allergic reaction is the body's way of involve the whole body.responding to an "invader." When the body Minor injuries,hot or cold temperatures,exercise,or even
senses a foreign substance,called an antigen,the emotions may be triggers of allergic reactions.immune system is triggered. The immune system Often,the specific allergen cannot be identified unless normally protects the body from harmful agents such as you have had a similar reaction in the past.bacteria and toxins. Its overreaction to a harmless Allergies and the tendency to have allergic reactions run substance (an allergen) is called a hypersensitivity in some families. You may have allergies even if they do reactiono ,r an allergic reaction.not run in your family.Anything which starts allergic reaction can be called an People with certain medical conditions are more likely allergen. Common dust,pollen,plants,medications,certain to have allergic reactions: foods,insect venoms,animal dander,viruses,or bacteria are examples of allergens.Prevention from allergic reaction Reactions may occur in one spots ,uch as a small skin rash Most people learn to recognize their allergy triggers; or itchy eyeso,r all overa,s in a whole body rash.they also learn to avoid them.A reaction may include one or several symptoms.Skin testing is the most widely used and the most helpful. There are several different methods,but all In rare cases,an allergic reaction can be life-threatening involve exposing the skin to small amounts of various (known as anaphylaxis). Each year in the United States,substances and observing the reactions over time.over 400 people die from anaphylactic reactions to penicillin,and nearly 100 Americans die from Blood tests (RAST) generally identify IgE antibodies to anaphylactic reactions to insects,according to the specific antigens.Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA).Other tests involve eliminating certain allergens from Most allergic reactions are much less serious,such as a your environment and then reintroducing them to see if rash from poison ivy or sneezing from hay fever. The a reaction occurs.type of reaction depends on the person but is sometimes People with a history of serious or anaphylactic unpredictable.reactions may be prescribed an autoinjector,sometimes Allergies are very common. The AAFA states allergies called a bee-sting kit. This contains a premeasured dose account for more than 17 million visits to the doctor each of epinephrine (EpiPen is one brand name). You carry year in USA. More than half this with you and inject of all allergy visits are for yourself with medication seasonal allergies. More than immediately if you are 7 million people visit their exposed to a substance that doctor for skin allergies causes you to have a severe annually,and food allergies allergic reaction.account for 30,000 visits to Allergic Reaction Treatment the emergency room Avoid triggers! If you know Causes of Allergic Reaction you have an allergic reaction to Almost anything can trigger peanuts,for example,do not eat an allergic reaction.them and go out of your way to avoid foods prepared with The body's immune system or around peanuts .involves the white blood cells,which produce Self-care at home is not antibodies.When the body is exposed to an antigen,a enough in severe reactions. A severe reaction is a medical complex set of reactions begins.emergency.The white blood cells produce an antibody specific to Do not attempt to treat or "wait out" severe reactions at that antigen. This is called "sensitization.” home. Go immediately to a hospital emergency department.The job of the antibodies is to detect and help destroy substances that cause disease and sickness. In allergic If no one is available to drive you right away,call an reactions,the antibody is called immunoglobulin E or ambulance for emergency medical transport.IgE.Use your epinephrine auto-injector if you have been This antibody promotes production and release of prescribed one by your doctor due to previous allergic chemicals and hormones called "mediators." reactions (see "prevention" below).Mediators have effects on local tissue and organs in Slight reactions with mild symptoms usually respond to addition to activating more white blood cell defenders.nonprescription allergy medications.It is these effects that cause the symptoms of the An oral antihistamine,such as diphenhydramine reaction.(Benadryl). Caution: These may make you too drowsy If the release of the mediators is sudden or extensive,the to drive or operate machinery safely. They can affect allergic reaction may also be sudden and severe,and concentration and interfere with children's learning in anaphylaxis may occur.school. These medications should be taken for only a few days.Your allergic reactions are unique to you. For example, your body may have learned to be allergic to shellfish or For rashes,an antiinflammatory steroid cream such as other foods from repeated exposure. Most people are hydrocortisone can be used.aware of their particular allergy triggers and reactions.For small,localized skin reactions,try cold,wet cloths or Certain foods,vaccines and medications,latex rubber,ice. Try applying a bag of frozen vegetables wrapped in aspirin,shellfish,dust, pollen,mold,animal dander,and poison
a towel as an ice pack.ivy are well-known allergens.Bee stingsf ,ire ant stingsp,enicillina ,nd peanuts are known for causing dramatic reactions that can be serious and
Genetically Modified Organism:Acceptance And Controversy
esearchers writing in the February issueof BioScience propose reintroducing
small, managed populations of wolvesinto national parks and other areas in order torestore damaged ecosystems. The populations would not be self-sustaining, and may consist of a single pack. But the BioScience authors suggestthat even managed populations could bring ecological, educational, recreational, scientific,and economic benefits.
Managed wolf populations couldrestore ecosystems
The authors, Daniel S. Licht, of the National Park Service, and four coauthors, note that research inrecent years has shown the importance of wolvesto ecosystems in which they naturally occur. Forexample, the presence of wolves usually leads tofewer ungulates, which in turn generally meansmore plant biomass and biodiversity. Wolves canalso increase tourism.Licht and his coauthors believe that wolvesintroduced for the purpose of ecosystemstewardship, rather than for the creation of self-sustaining wolf populations, could enhance publicunderstanding and appreciation of the animals. Advances in real-time animal tracking madepossible through global positioning systemtechnology, as well as the use of contraception andsurgery, could help in controlling the growth of introduced populations. This approach mightmitigate concerns about depredation of livestock and game, attacks on pets, and human safety,Licht and colleagues maintain. Fences could alsoplay a role. Wolves were introduced to Coronation Island, Alaska, for ecosystem restoration in 1960, andthey successfully controlled deer there before the wolf population grew and subsequently crashed.Licht and his coauthors suggest that with moreintensive management this unfavorable outcomecould have been avoided, and that desirable resultscould be expected at many sites in North America and elsewhere, provided there are sufficient prey.
DO YOU KNOW WHAT IS ALLERGY?O YOU KNOW WHAT IS ALLERGY?
Stem Cell Research Gets A ShotIn The Arm
n march 9,2009 wrote in his order. HeUS president conceded that for the past
Barak obama eight year the authority of thesigned an epoch making department of executive order “removing Health(NIH),to fund andbarriers to responsible conduct human embryonicscientific research involving stem cells research has beenhuman stem cells”.It is limited by presidentialindeed a shot in the arm of actions. On augustthe beleaguered stem cells 9,2001,Bush decided thatresearchers. Steam cells federal funds may b awardedare,”blank slate” cells which for research using humancan devide and renew over embryonic stem cells if “Thelong periods.they ccan derivation process (whichdevelop into specializedcell,tissue or organ and caneffectively serve as a sort of repair system for thebody.medical specialistbelieve that stem cells haveunlimited potential whichcan be used to returnmemory to Alzheimer's,thepatients to enable wheelchair bound patientto walk or to replace begins with the destruction of damaged skin of patients. the embryo) was initiatedThe possibility of miracle prior to 9.00 P.M.EDT oncures lies tweaking the cells to august 9,2001;the stem cellsdevelop into new insuline-must have been derived fromproducing cells to treat or an embryo that was createdeven cure diabetics, for reproductive purposes andcardiomyocytes to replace was no longer needed.”damaged heart tissue orStem Cells Are Blank Statecartilage cells to treatCells Which Can Devide Andarthrities, new nerve cellRenew Over Long Periodconnections to treat diseasesScientists have to wait till new such as Alzheimer's,guidelines governing whatParkinson's andresearch can qualify for federal Amyotrophic lateralsupport are issued by thesclerosis(ALS), a progressiveNational Institutes of Health.degenerative diseases thatThere is another roadblock inattacks the motor neutrons inthe form of Dickey-Wickerthe spinal cord;it leads toamendant which prohibitsdebilitating paralysis space of the use of federal funds tolimbs and respiration.support scientific work that Appropriately morphed steminvolves the creation of cells may replace nerve cellsembryos.damaged due to spinal injury.Scientist who want to create“Advances over the pastembryos-and extracts stemdecade in this promising cells – matched to patientsscientific field have been with specific diseases,can notencouraging, leading toget federal funding tillbroad aggrement in theCongress withdraws thescientific community theamendment.research should be supportedby Federal funds”,Obama
Raj Rani (B.tech-Biotech, SEM-II),EIILM University
Rizwan ahmed khan(Lecturer, Department of Biotechnology & Environmental Science),
Deepankar Moktan, (Btech Biotech sem-IV),EIILM University
Ms. Nishika Jaishee,Lecturer, EIILM Univeristy
Bio Fun Facts: Do You Know?
1.Dolphins cannot stay long underwater because they breathe through their blowholes above water. 2.The biggest egg in the world is the ostrich egg. It could take as many as 30 chicken eggs to equal its volume, and up to 2 hours to hard boil. An ostrich egg is also the largest existing single cell. 3.A kind of jellyfish (Turritopsis nutricula) upon reaching adulthood can transform itself back to childhood by converting its cells. It may repeat this to live forever.4.The little Alaskan Wood Frog is capable of reviving itself back to normal life after staying completely frozen for months, during which its heart, brain and other organs stop functioning.5.Some species of earthworm can have as many as 10 hearts.6.To avoid predators, a mother Slow Loris licks its offspring with poison before sending them off to search for food.7.There are more species of fish in Amazon river than in the entire Atlantic Ocean (Over 2,000).8.When the queen of a clownfish school dies, a male clownfish changes its gender to become female and takes her place.9.The acceleration rate of a flea's jump is 20 times that of a space shuttle during launch.10. While we're awake, our brain generates enough power to illuminate a light bulb of 25 watts.