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Ch 3 - Problems

Ch 3 - Problems

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Published by Khris Griffis

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Published by: Khris Griffis on Apr 17, 2010
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02/17/2013

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1.
Kinases are enzymes that transfer a phosphoryl group from a nucleoside triphosphate. Which of thefollowing are valid kinase-catalyzed reactions?
(a)
ATP + GDP
ADP + GTP
(b)
ATP + GMP
AMP + GTP
(c)
ADP + CMP
AMP + CDP
(d)
AMP + ATP
2 ADP
Answer:(a)
Yes;
(b)
no;
(c)
no;
(d)
yes.
2.
A diploid organism with a 45,000-kb haploid genome contains 21% G residues. Calculate the number of A, C, G, and T residues in the DNA of each cell in this organism.
Answer:
Since the haploid genome contains 21% G, it must contain 21% C (because G = C) and 58% A + T (or 29% A and 29% T, because A = T). Each cell is diploid, containing 90,000 kb or 9 × 10
7
bases. Therefore,
3.
A segment of DNA containing 20 base pairs includes 7 guanine residues. How many adenine residues arein the segment? How many uracil residues are in the segment?
Answer:
The DNA contains 40 bases in all. Since G = C, there are 7 cytosine residues. The remainder (40 – 14 =26) must be adenine and thymine. Since A = T, there are 13 adenine residues. There are no uracil residues(U is a component of RNA but not DNA).
4.
Draw the tautomeric forms of (a) adenine and (b) cytosine.
Answer:
Problemshttp://edugen.wiley.com/edugen/courses/crs1900/rc/voet9301c03/dm9ld...1 of 64/17/2010 9:10 AM
 
5.
The adenine derivative hypoxanthine can base-pair with both cytosine and adenine. Show the structuresof these base pairs.
Answer:6.
Explain why the strands of a DNA molecule can be separated more easily at pH > 11.
Problemshttp://edugen.wiley.com/edugen/courses/crs1900/rc/voet9301c03/dm9ld...2 of 64/17/2010 9:10 AM
 
Answer:
The high pH eliminates hydrogen bonds between bases, making it easier to separate the strands of DNA.
7.
How many different amino acids could theoretically be encoded by nucleic acids containing four differentnucleotides if (a) each nucleotide coded for one amino acid; (b) consecutive sequences of two nucleotidescoded for one amino acid; (c) consecutive sequences of three nucleotides coded for one amino acid; (d)consecutive sequences of four nucleotides coded for one amino acid?
Answer:
The number of possible sequences of four different nucleotides is 4
n
where
n
is the number of nucleotidesin the sequence. Therefore, (a) 4
1
= 4, (b) 4
2
= 16, (c) 4
3
= 64, and (d) 4
4
= 256.
8.
The recognition sequence for the restriction enzyme
Taq
I is T
CGA. Indicate the products of the reactionof 
Taq
I with the DNA sequence shown.5
-AC GT C GAA T C –3
3
-T G C AGC T T A G–5
Answer:9.
Using the data in Table 3-2, identify restriction enzymes that (a) produce blunt ends; (b) recognize andcleave the same sequence (called
isoschizomers
); (c) produce identical sticky ends.
Answer:(a)
 Alu
I,
 Eco
RV,
 Hae
III,
Pvu
II;
(b)
 Hpa
II and
 Msp
I;
(c)
 Bam
HI and
 Bgl
II;
 Hpa
II and
Taq
I;
Sal
I and
 Xho
I.
10.
Describe the outcome of a chain-terminator sequencing procedure in which (a) too little ddNTP is added;(b) too much ddNTP is added; (c) too few primers are present; (d) too many primers are present.
Answer:(a)
 Newly synthesized chains would be terminated less frequently, so the bands representingtruncated fragments on the sequencing gel would appear faint.
(b)
Chain termination would occur more frequently, so longer fragments would be less abundant.
(c)
The amount of DNA synthesis would decrease and the resulting gel bands would appear faint.
(d)
 No effect.
11.
Calculate the number of clones required to obtain with a probability of 0.99 a specific 5-kb fragmentfrom
C. elegans
(Table 3-3).
Answer:
The
C. elegans
genome contains 97,000 kb, so
Problemshttp://edugen.wiley.com/edugen/courses/crs1900/rc/voet9301c03/dm9ld...3 of 64/17/2010 9:10 AM

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