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Alternate working fluids and their properties for high temperature plants

Alternate working fluids and their properties for high temperature plants

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Abstract:
Water has long been used as the working fluid for high-temperature plants. But the increasing need for efficiency, higher power output and wider range of applications of working fluids have created a need for alternate working fluids. This report investigates the various alternatives available.
This is a part of a course "ME 306 - Applied Thermodynamics".
Abstract:
Water has long been used as the working fluid for high-temperature plants. But the increasing need for efficiency, higher power output and wider range of applications of working fluids have created a need for alternate working fluids. This report investigates the various alternatives available.
This is a part of a course "ME 306 - Applied Thermodynamics".

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Published by: jyoti swaroop repaka on Apr 17, 2010
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07/23/2012

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Alternate working fluids and their propertiesfor high temperature plants
Jyoti Swaroop Repaka07010042Praveen Jain07d10002April 10, 2010
Department of Mechanical Engineering,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay.
Abstract
This is a part of the course
ME 306 - Applied Thermodynamics
taught by
Prof. Uday N. Gaitonde
. The topic is
Alternate working  fluids and their properties for high temperature plants
. (Topic ID-268).Water has long been used as the working fluid for high-temperatureplants. But the increasing need for efficiency, higher power output andwider range of applications of working fluids have created a need foralternate working fluids. This report investigates the various alterna-tives available.
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1 Introduction
The working fluid in a machine is the pressurized gas or liquid which actuatesthe machine.[6] Examples include steam in a steam engine, air in a hot airengine and hydraulic fluid in a hydraulic motor or hydraulic cylinder.It absorbs thermal energy and converts and provide work output in aturbine. For a specified power output, the required size and obtained per-formance of a thermodynamic power system releasing mechanical work arevery dependent upon the properties of the working fluid.
2 Water as a working fluid
Water is an excellent working fluid for high-temperature industrial heatpumps due to its favourable thermodynamic properties and the fact thatit is plentiful, low in cost, nontoxic, chemically stable, and relatively noncor-rosive. Water has mainly been used as a working fluid in open and semi-openMVR systems, but there are also a few closed-cycle compression heat pumpswith water as working fluid. Typical operating temperatures are in the rangefrom 80
C to 150
C. 300
C has been achieved in a test plant in Japan, andthere is a growing interest in utilising water as a working fluid, especiallyfor high- temperature applications. The major disadvantage with water asa working fluid is that the low volumetric heat capacity (kJ/m
3
) of water.This requires large and expensive compressors, especially at low tempera-tures. In addition, water has a relatively large change in specific enthalpywhen it vaporizes at ordinary steam generator pressures, which tends to limitthe mass flow rate for a desired power plant output. The properties of liq-uid water and water vapor are also such that the back work ratios achievedare characteristically quite low, and the techniques of superheat, reheat, andregeneration can be effective for increasing power plant efficiencies.[7]Water is less satisfactory insofar as some other desirable working fluidcharacteristics are concerned. For example, the critical temperature of wateris only 374.14
C, which is about 225
C below the maximum allowable tur-bine inlet temperatures. Accordingly, to achieve a high average temperatureof heat addition and realize the attendant higher thermal efficiency, it maybe necessary for the steam generator to operate at supercritical pressures.This requires costly piping and heat exchanger tubes capable of withstand-ing great stresses. Another undesirable characteristic of water is that itssaturation pressure at ordinary condenser temperatures is well below atmo-spheric pressure. As a result, air can leak into the system, necessitating theuse of special ejector pumps attached to the condenser or de-aerating feed1

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