The working ﬂuid in a machine is the pressurized gas or liquid which actuatesthe machine. Examples include steam in a steam engine, air in a hot airengine and hydraulic ﬂuid in a hydraulic motor or hydraulic cylinder.It absorbs thermal energy and converts and provide work output in aturbine. For a speciﬁed power output, the required size and obtained per-formance of a thermodynamic power system releasing mechanical work arevery dependent upon the properties of the working ﬂuid.
2 Water as a working ﬂuid
Water is an excellent working ﬂuid for high-temperature industrial heatpumps due to its favourable thermodynamic properties and the fact thatit is plentiful, low in cost, nontoxic, chemically stable, and relatively noncor-rosive. Water has mainly been used as a working ﬂuid in open and semi-openMVR systems, but there are also a few closed-cycle compression heat pumpswith water as working ﬂuid. Typical operating temperatures are in the rangefrom 80
C to 150
C has been achieved in a test plant in Japan, andthere is a growing interest in utilising water as a working ﬂuid, especiallyfor high- temperature applications. The major disadvantage with water asa working ﬂuid is that the low volumetric heat capacity (kJ/m
) of water.This requires large and expensive compressors, especially at low tempera-tures. In addition, water has a relatively large change in speciﬁc enthalpywhen it vaporizes at ordinary steam generator pressures, which tends to limitthe mass ﬂow rate for a desired power plant output. The properties of liq-uid water and water vapor are also such that the back work ratios achievedare characteristically quite low, and the techniques of superheat, reheat, andregeneration can be eﬀective for increasing power plant eﬃciencies.Water is less satisfactory insofar as some other desirable working ﬂuidcharacteristics are concerned. For example, the critical temperature of wateris only 374.14
C, which is about 225
C below the maximum allowable tur-bine inlet temperatures. Accordingly, to achieve a high average temperatureof heat addition and realize the attendant higher thermal eﬃciency, it maybe necessary for the steam generator to operate at supercritical pressures.This requires costly piping and heat exchanger tubes capable of withstand-ing great stresses. Another undesirable characteristic of water is that itssaturation pressure at ordinary condenser temperatures is well below atmo-spheric pressure. As a result, air can leak into the system, necessitating theuse of special ejector pumps attached to the condenser or de-aerating feed1