Mark A. Tietjen andRobert M. Myers
Motivation and job satisfaction
Management Decision36/4  226–231
The relationship of satisfaction anddissatisfaction
The most signiﬁcant and basic differencebetween Herzberg’s two factors is theinherent level of satisfaction/dissatisfactionwithin each factor. If motivation includesonly those things which promote action overtime, then motivators are the factors thatpromote long-running attitudes and satisfac-tion. According to Herzberg
(1959), moti-vators cause positive job attitudes becausethey satisfy the worker’s need for self-actual-ization (Maslow, 1954), the individual’s ulti-mate goal. The presence of these motivatorshas the potential to create great job satisfac-tion; however, in the absence of motivators,Herzberg says, dissatisfaction does not occur.Likewise, hygiene factors, which simply“move” (cause temporary action), have thepotential to cause great dissatisfaction. Simi-larly, their absence does not provoke a highlevel of satisfaction.How does Herzberg base this non-bipolarrelationship? Job satisfaction (House andWigdor, 1967) contains two separate and inde-pendent dimensions. These dimensions arenot on differing ends of one continuum;instead they consist of two separate and dis-tinct continua. According to Herzberg (1968),the opposite of job satisfaction is not dissatis-faction, but rather a simple lack of satisfac-tion. In the same way, the opposite of job dis-satisfaction is not satisfaction, but rather “nodissatisfaction”. For example, consider thehygiene factor, work conditions. If the airconditioner breaks in the middle of a hotsummer day, workers will be greatly dissatis-ﬁed. However, if the air-conditioner worksthroughout the day as expected, the workerswill not be particularly satisﬁed by takingnotice and being grateful.
Motivation vs. movement in KITA
Integral to Herzberg’s theory of motivation isthe difference between motivation and move-ment. He compares the two in his discussionof KITA (Herzberg, 1968) – the polite acronymfor a “kick in the —— ”. There are three dif-ferent types of KITA:•negative physical KITA;•negative psychological KITA;•positive KITA.In today’s litigious society, it is probable thatmost managers will deal less and less withworkers utilizing negative physical KITA, orphysical contact to initiate action out of anindolent employee. Negative psychologicalKITA is also rather useless in motivatingworkers; the primary beneﬁt, though mali-cious, is the feeding of one’s ego, also knownas a power trip. What about positive KITA?Positive KITA can be summarized in oneword – reward. The relationship is “if…,then… ”. If you ﬁnish this task in one week,then you will receive this bonus. Thoughmany managers give incentives to motivate,Herzberg says that positive KITA is not moti-vational. Positive KITA, rather, moves orstimulates movement. When the workerreceives the bonus on completion of the task,is the individual any more motivated to work harder now? Was there a lasting effectbecause of the conditional bonus? No, theworker was simply moved temporarily to act.There are, however, no extended effects oncethe bonus is received.Recalling motivator factors, Herzberg(1968) concludes that only these factors canhave a lasting impression on a worker’s atti-tude, satisfaction and, thus, work. Further-more, workers perform best (Steininger, 1994)when this stimulation is internal and work-related.
Locke’s theory on jobsatisfaction
Locke’s composite theory of job satisfactionis the product of many other concepts whichhe has developed through study andresearch on related topics such as goal-setting and employee performance.Likewise, his explanation of job satisfactionis in part, a response to some of Herzberg’sproposals. Thus, Locke’s criticism of Herzberg will be the initial discussion, fol-lowed by his theory on values, agent/eventfactors, and finally an adjusted view of jobsatisfaction.
Criticisms of Herzberg
Locke’s assessment of Herzberg’s two-factortheory can be summarized in brief by thefollowing conclusions about Herzberg’sthinking:1Job satisfaction and dissatisfaction resultfrom different causes.2The two-factor theory is parallel to thedual theory of man’s needs, which statesthat physical needs (like those of animals)work in conjunction with hygiene factors,and psychological needs or growth needs(unique to humans) work alongsidemotivators (Locke, 1976). With thesepropositions as the basis for Locke’sunderstanding of Herzberg, the followingis a list of Locke’s criticisms:•mind-body dichotomy;•unidirectional operation of needs;
Bagi yg membutuhkan topik-topik penelitian bidang manajemen, Kunjungi: