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Geophysical Image Processing With Seismic Unix

Geophysical Image Processing With Seismic Unix

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Geophysical Image Processing with Seismic Unix:GPGN 461/561 LabSpring 2009
Instructor: John StockwellResearch AssociateCenter for Wave Phenomenacopyright: John W. Stockwell, Jr.c
2009, all rights reservedLicense: You may download this document for educationalpurposes and personal use, only, but not forrepublication.October 21, 2009
 
Contents
1 Seismic Processing Lab- Preliminary issues 10
1.1 Motivation for the lab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.2 Unix and Unix-like operating systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.2.1 Steep learning curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.3 Logging in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.4 What is a Shell? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121.5 The working environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121.6 Setting the working environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.7 Choice of editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.8 The Unix directory structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151.9 Scratch and Data directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171.10 Shell environment variables and path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171.10.1 The path or PATH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181.10.2 The CWPROOT variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181.11 Shell conguration les . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191.12 Setting up the working environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191.12.1 The CSH-family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191.12.2 The SH-family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201.13 Unix help mechanism- Unix man pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2 Lab Activity #1 - Getting started with Unix and SU 22
2.1 Pipe
|
, redirect in
<
, redirect out
>
, and run in background & . . . . . 242.2 Stringing commands together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252.2.1 Questions for discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252.3 Unix Quick Reference Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3 Lab Activity #2 - viewing data 29
3.0.1 Data image examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293.1 Viewing an SU data file: Wiggle traces and Image plots . . . . . . . . . . 303.1.1 Wiggle traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303.1.2 Image plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313.2 Greyscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313.3 Legend ; making grayscale values scientifically meaningful . . . . . . . . . 353.4 Normalization: Median balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
 
2
3.5 Homework problem #1 - Due Thursday 10 Sept 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . 393.6 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
4 Help features in Seismic Unix 42
4.1 The selfdoc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424.2 Finding the names of programs with:
suname
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434.3 Lab Activity #3 - Exploring the trace header structure . . . . . . . . . . 454.3.1 What are the trace header fields-
sukeyword
? . . . . . . . . . . 454.4 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
5 Lab Activity #4 - Migration/Imaging as depth conversion 56
5.1 Time-to-depth with
suttoz
; depth-to-time with
suztot
. . . . . . . . . 605.2 Time to depth conversion of a test pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605.2.1 How time-depth and depth-time conversion works . . . . . . . . . 615.3 Sonar and Radar, bad header values and incomplete information . . . . . 625.4 The sonar data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635.5 Homework Problem - #2 - Time-to-depth conversion of the
sonar.su
andthe
radar.su
data. Due Thursday 17 Sept 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645.6 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
6 Zero-oset (aka poststack) migration 66
6.1 Migration as reverse time propagation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 686.2 Lab Activity #5 - Hagedoorn’s graphical migration . . . . . . . . . . . . 706.3 Migration as a Diraction stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 746.4 Migration as a mathematical mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 756.5 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
7 Lab Activity #6 - Several types of migration 77
7.1 Dierent types of velocity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 777.2 Stolt or (
f,k
)-migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 787.2.1 Stolt migration of the Simple model data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 797.3 Gazdag or Phase-shift migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 807.4 Claerbout’s “15 degreefinite-difference migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 827.5 Ristow and Ruhl’s Fourier finite-difference migration . . . . . . . . . . . 837.6 Stoas split-step migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 837.7 Gazdag’s Phase-shift Plus Interpolation migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 847.8 Lab Activity #7 - Shell scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 857.9 Homework #3 - Due 24 Sept 2009. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 877.10 Lab Activity #8 - Kirchhoff Migration of Zero-offset data . . . . . . . . . 877.11 Spatial aliasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 907.11.1 Interpreting the result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 917.11.2 Recognizing spatial aliasing of data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 927.11.3 Remedies for spatial aliasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 927.12 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 942

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