AHAMD SARKI GUMEL
Techniques such as gene insertion, embryo splitting, and pronuclear DNA injections would not be as feasible without embryo transfer technology.Hence among the
Leads to higher increase in number of animals than normal reproductive is allowed tooccur 2.
Potential in conservation of germ plasm with production of superior animals3.
Salving the reproductive problems5.
Increased marketing opportunity of both the offspring and the embryo6.
Embryos can be stored to a longer period, until when the reproduction is required.Among the
Increased expenses and higher break-even costs for calves.2.
It required technical expertise, as such things like hormone manipulation and Estrusdetection need to be carefully monitored for the success of the process3.
It required the Synchronization of recipient with donor.4.
Specialized equipment and trained personnel.5.
More expensive than traditional reproductive methods.Cryopreservation is freezing tissue or cells in order to preserve it for the future. Embryo preservation is a delicate and complex process involving multiple steps. Through the process of invitro fertilisation, the egg and the sperm, unite under controlled conditions within a fertilitylaboratory. This embryo is then frozen to extremely cold temperatures, using liquid nitrogen at atemperature of about -196
C below zero, under such extreme conditions virtually all biological processes cease, include the process of cell death. Under these specialised conditions theembryos can be frozen by direct plonging process or by vitrification process (an ultra-rapid IVFembryo freezing instead of the traditional slow freezing process), and can remain dormant untilsuch time when pregnancy is desired. Through a slow thawing process of the embryos arerevived and the biological processes are resumed.Vitrification in IVF can allow freezing of spare embryos with better post-thaw survival rates andhigher pregnancy and live birth rates from frozen embryo transfer cycles.
of Embryo Cryopr
In vitrification process has many primary advantages and benefits, such as no ice crystalformationthrough increased speed of temperature conduction,which provides a significantincrease in cooling rates. Thispermits the use of less concentrated cryoprotectant agentsso thatthe toxic effect is decreased. Additionally, chillinginjuries are considerably reducedEmbryo freezing provides the option to delay pregnancy without risking further damage to theegg. Advanced reproductive age can cause the ovaries to age and deteriorate with time.Cryopreservation of embryos in reproductive animals enables utilization of young healthy eggs,fertilize them and keep them preserved until they are ready for a reproduction cycle. This optionis also most especially when there are disease out breaks, one can cryopreserve stocks of