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MENG 208-Lecture 1

MENG 208-Lecture 1

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MENG 208August 28, 2009Dr. Camilo A. PolingaBASIC DEFINITIONS
 
Nonconventional Energy Systems
refer to energy systems which utilizerenewable energy resources.
 
Nonconventional Energy Resources
are energy resources in which theconversion or utilization technology for large-scale application are not as welldeveloped or widely used. It include the direct and indirect form of solar, tidal,nuclear converter and breeder reactors and fusion.Characteristics of Nonconventional Energy
 
Renewable
± there is no lower limit on the total quantity of energy resourceconsumed by the system. The resource is renewed regularly, thus the system cansupply energy continuously.
 
I
ndigenous
- the systems using locally-available energy resources such as biomass, solar, wind and hydro which do not require foreign exchange. Also,most of the energy systems¶ equipment and components can be locallymanufactured.
 
Small-scale ± 
The energy systems become more economically competitive for small energy demands (below megawatt level) in remote areas
 
D
ecentralized ± 
systems are more desirable for decentralized operation sinceenergy resources used are dispersed but widely available; and small-scaleoperations are more economical.
 
M
odular ± 
energy systems can easily be sized to meet the exact amount of energyneeds of any project.Types of Energy System
 
B
iomass Energy Systems
± are energy systems which use organic matter, primarily plant and animal matter, through either thermo-chemical or biochemical processes to produce energy.
 
Solar Energy Systems -
are energy systems which directly convert solar radiation into useful energy in the form of thermal or electrical energy.
 
W
ind Energy Systems ± 
are energy systems which use wind turbine to convertthe energy in the wind to rotary motion which in turn produces mechanical or electrical energy.
 
M
icrohydro Systems -
are energy systems usually in the range of 20 to 30kilowatts, which use water turbine to rotary motion to produce mechanical or electrical energy.
 
 
T
idal Energy ± 
The relative motions of the sun, earth and moon and their gravitational pull on one another cause worldwide water levels to rise and fall periodically. System of buoys and weighs may be used to harness the energydeveloped by this displacement of water. The process of using tidal energy is stillin the experimental stage in the Philippines and in other parts of the globe, butscientists and engineers are optimistic that future developments will yield goodresults.
 
O
cean
T
hermal Energy ± 
Ocean thermal energy is another extension of solar thermal energy. The ocean is the world¶s largest solar collector. Ocean thermalenergy conversion system (OTEC) use the temperature difference between warmocean surface waters and the cold waters of the ocean depths to operate athermodynamic cycle and generate electricity. OTEC technology in thePhilippines is also in the research and development stage, but it is estimated thatapplications from the small 10MW size to a large 400 MW size plants are possible.
 
G
eothermal
 
Energy -
Geothermal energy has its origin in the heat beingreleased from the center of the earth. Steam pressures released from wells drilleddeep into the crust is harnessed by large turbines at geothermal power plants togenerate electricity. With more than one billion watts currently installed, thePhilippines is the leader geothermal power producer in Asia and the second in theworld with roughly half the geothermal power output of the entire USA.RENEWABLE ENERGY STORAGERenewable energy has generally fluctuating nature. Wind, for example, may be intermittent in a particular region. As for the cyclical sources such as solar energy, power is delivered to the system only during certain periods, e.g. daytime. Thus,inorder to be able to obtain power at times when there is no direct input fromrenewable energy resources, forms of energy storage must be used.
 
H
eat Storage«.
Heat is a form of energy which is the result of the kineticenergy of the molecules that make up matter. Heat normally flows from a body of higher temperature to one of lower temperature until their temperatures become the same. In order to be able to contain the flow of heat, a body must be covered with a non-heat-conducting material, or ³insulator´. In solar water heaters, hot water from the solar panel moves upinto an insulated storage tank in which the water is kept warm. This is themost common form of heat storage.
 
Electrical Storage ----
Electricity is a form of energy which is due to themovement of electrons within a conductor. Electric current normally flowsfrom an area of higher polarity (+) to one lower polarity (-). Electricity may be stored within passive circuit elements known as capacitors or in chemicalform within circuit elements known as batteries. In almost all renewableenergy systems which have DC (direct current) electricity as its output, batteries (usually lead-acid batteries) are utilized for energy storage andstability of the supply.
 
 
M
echanical Storage«
Mechanical energy is due to the inertia of matter. Itis normally categorized into kinetic (energy in motion) and potential (energyat rest). When a dynamo ( a device that converts rotational kinetic energyinto electricity) is turned, the inertia of the dynamo which keeps it turningeven after the external force is applied constitutes mechanical energy storage.This is the same principle of the ³fly-wheel´. Mechanical energy is alsostored when filling up reservoir of water, as in hydro-power systems, since potential energy is developed whenever water is transported to a higher level.
ENER 
GY
C
O
NSERVA
TIO
N
Renewable Energy Conversion systems are generally expensive to install. There is noexcuse for unnecessary waste of the energy generated. Energy generation shouldalways follow a comprehensive study of the energy demand or ³end-use´requirements. Since no energy supply is cheap or occurs without some form of environmental disruption, it is also very important to use energy efficiently with goodmethods of energy conservation. It is usually better to spend money on energyconservation and improving efficiency of use than in spending more money toincrease the system¶s capacity and increase power generation.Renewable energy is usually dispersed or decentralized. Thus, for a given area, theenergy that can be produced by renewable resources is considerably less that what can be produced by non-renewable resources. This is another reason for developingenergy conservation techniques.The Philippines, in its pursuit of third-wave technologies, must be able to sustain itsindustrialization with an accompanying increase in energy utilization efficiency.Proper ³energy values´ should be instilled in each Filipino, not only to reducehousehold electricity bills, but also to be able to adapt to lifestyle of renewable energyutilization.In an average, househod, household, the bulk of energy use is for water heating,refrigeration, cooking and lighting. Thus, it is good practice to look for ways toimprove the efficiency of energy utilization in these areas. The largest energyrequirements are usually for heating and transportation, since both uses are associatedwith energy storage capacity in thermal mass, batteries or fuel tanks, the inclusion of these storage media in renewable energy systems can also greatly improve overallefficiency.Energy consumed in industry constitutes a larger portion of the energy pie in manycommunities. Thus, it is best to find ways to make industrial processes more energyefficient. If all sectors of society would just together in conserving energy, therewould be no need for putting up additional non-renewable energy plants in thePhilippines in the near future.

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