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Theoretical, Mathematical introduction to 3D Computer Graphics

Theoretical, Mathematical introduction to 3D Computer Graphics

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Vector Math Tutorial for 3D Computer Graphics

Vector Math for 3D Computer Graphics

An Interactive TutorialSecond Revision, July 2000

T

his is a tutorial on

vector

algebra and

matrix

algebra from the viewpoint of computergraphics. It covers most vector and matrix topics needed for college-level computer graphicstext books. Most graphics texts cover these subjects in an appendix, but it is often too short.This tutorial covers the same material at greater length, and with many examples.

·Chapter 1--- Vectors, Points, and Displacement·Chapter 2--- Vector Addition·Chapter 3--- Displacement Vectors·Chapter 4--- Length of Vectors·Chapter 5--- Direction of Vectors·Chapter 6--- Scaling and Unit Vectors·Chapter 7--- The Dot Product·Chapter 8--- Length and the Dot Product·Chapter 9--- The Angle between two Vectors.·Chapter 10--- The Angle between 3D Vectors.·Chapter 11--- Projecting one Vector onto Another.·Chapter 12--- Vector Cross Product.·Chapter 13--- Matrices and Simple Matrix Operations.·Chapter 14--- Matrix-Column Matrix Multiplicaton.·Chapter 15--- Matrix-Matrix Multiplication·Chapter 16--- Identity Matrix and Matrix Inverse·Index

A

lthough primarily aimed at computer science students, this tutorial is useful to allprogrammers interested in 3D computer graphics or 3D computer game programming. In spite

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Vector Math Tutorial for 3D Computer Graphics

of their appealing blood-and-gore covers, mass trade books on game programming require thesame understanding of vectors and matrices as more staid text books (and usually defer thesetopics to the same skimpy mathematical appendix).This tutorial is useful for more than computer graphics. Vectors and matrices are used in allscientific and engineering fields, and any other field that uses computers (are there any thatdon't?) In many fields, the vocabulary used for vectors and matrices does not match that usedin computer graphics. But the ideas are the same, and reading these notes will take only aslight mental adjustment.These notes assume that you have studied plane geometry and trigonometry sometime in thepast. Notions such as "point", "line", "plane", and "angle" should be familiar to you. Othernotions such as "sine", "cosine", "determinant", "real number", and the common trig identitiesshould at least be a distant memory.These pages were designed at 800 by 600 resolution with "web safe" colors. They have been(somewhat) tested with not-too-old versions of Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer, using"Times Roman" font (the usual browser default font). Many pages require Javascript, and somepages require Java. If you lack these (or are behind a firewall that does not allow these inside)you will be able to read most pages, but the interactive features will be lost.Some sections are more than three years old and have been used in several lecture sections(and hence are "classroom tested" and likely to be technically correct and readable). Othersections have just been written and might fall short of both goals.This tutorial may be freely downloaded and used as long as copyright and authorshipinformation is not removed. (They are contained in HTML comments on each page.) Peoplewho wish to reward this effort may do so by going to their local public library and checking outany long neglected, lonely book from the stacks.

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CHAPTER 1 --- Vectors, Points, and Column Matrices

created 08/19/97; revised 08/01/00; bug (ant) fixes 09/14/00

CHAPTER 1 --- Vectors, Points, andColumn Matrices

This chapter discusses the objects of computer graphics---vectors and points---and how they arerepresented in a computer---as column matrices. A column matrix is a mathematical object that hasmany uses besides its use in computer graphics. These notes discuss only the aspects that are used incomputer graphics.

Chapter Topics:

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Computer graphics as modeling and viewing.

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Geometrical points and vectors.

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Column and row matrices.

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Calculating displacements.

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Equality of column matrices.

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Names for column matrices.

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Representing points with column matrices.

Computer graphics books use one of two ways to represent points and vectors. Some books use rowmatrices; other books use column matrices. The two methods are exactly equivalent (although someformulae have to be adjusted). These notes use column matrices.Some graphics books use the term "column vector" for the object that these notes call a "columnmatrix." This is just a variation in terminology and does not affect the concepts or formulae presentedhere.

QUESTION 1:

(Review: ) What two types of objects are represented with column matrices?Click Here after you have answered the question

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