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Senior Chem - Controlling Reactions

Senior Chem - Controlling Reactions

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Published by: chiggs on Apr 19, 2010
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USING AND CONTROLLING REACTIONS
TOPIC 4: USING AND CONTROLLING REACTIONS
The use and control of chemical reactions are important tasks undertaken by chemists. This topic looks at theenergy changes that accompany chemical reactions, as well as their rates and extents. It also examines theways in which chemical reactions are controlled and used to make materials and generate the energy needed by a modern industrial society.The increased use of energy from chemical reactions has been a major factor in the evolution of theindustrialised world. In this topic students consider the ways in which this energy is produced and beginquantitative consideration of the energy changes that accompany chemical reactions.The production of chemicals is the main function of the chemical industry. These chemicals allow naturallyoccurring materials to be modified or replaced and previously unknown materials to be developed. Theindustrialised world depends on a chemical industry for the manufacture of a diverse range of materials. Inthis topic students look at how chemicals are produced and how the production can be performed mostefficiently.Knowledge of chemistry can be applied to manipulate the reaction conditions of industrial processes in order to determine the quantity or quality of the product.
4.1 MEASURING ENERGY CHANGES
 Key IdeasIntended Student Learnin
Almost all chemical reactions occur with either anabsorption or a release of heat or light energy. Other forms of energy, such as electrical energy, can also bereleased.Identify combustion and respiration as reactionsthat release energy and photosynthesis as areaction that absorbs energy.Exothermic reactions release energy to thesurroundings whereas endothermic reactions absorbenergy from the surroundings.Deduce whether a reaction is exothermic or endothermic from information provided.The measurement of the heat change in chemicalreactions is called ‘calorimetry’; the insulatedapparatus used for the measurement is a calorimeter.Calculate the heat produced or absorbed for areaction from experimental data, given thespecific heat capacity of water as 4.18 J g
1
1
.The heat released or absorbed in a reaction at constant pressure is called the ‘enthalpy change for thereaction’; it is given the symbol
 H 
.Determine enthalpy changes from experimentaldata for reactions, including:the combustion of alcohols;the neutralisation of acids with bases;solution processes.Exothermic reactions have negative
 H 
values.Endothermic reactions have positive
 H 
values.Identify a reaction as exothermic or endothermic,given a thermochemical equation or the value of its enthalpy change.Thermochemical equations express a quantitativerelationship between the quantities of reactants and theenthalpy change.Write thermochemical equations that correspondto given molar enthalpies of combustion,neutralisation, and solution.The magnitude of the heat absorbed or evolved for areaction is directly proportional to the quantities of reactants involved.Calculate the theoretical temperature change of aspecified mass of water or solution heated or cooled by a reaction, given molar enthalpies andquantities of reactants.
 Introduction
Chemical reactions are usually accompanied by the absorption or release of heat and light energy. Electricaland sound energy may also be produced.1
 
USING AND CONTROLLING REACTIONS
Reactions that produce heat include:
Acid-base neutralisations
Combustion reactions
Solution of a solute in a solvent
 Exothermic and endothermic reactions Exothermic reactions
release heat energy into the surroundings and cause an increase in temperature.
 Endothermic reactions
absorb heat energy from the surroundings and cause a decrease in temperature.
 Enthalpy changes for reactions
The quantity of heat energy released or absorbed when specific amounts of substances react is called the heatof reaction. For reactions carried out at constant pressure, the heat of reaction is called the
enthalpy change
.The symbol is
H.The molar enthalpy change for a reaction is the quantity of heat released or absorbed when 1.00 mole of aspecific substance reacts in a chemical reaction under constant pressure. Units - kilojoules per mole (kJ mol
-1
).
Example
The molar enthalpy of combustion of butane ( 
 H 
comb
(butane)) =2874 kJ mol 
-1
. This means that when 1 moleof butane undergoes complete combustion, 2874 kJ of heat energy are released to the surroundings.
Calorimetry
Calorimetry is the measurement of energy changes during a chemical reaction. The vessel used for themeasurement is called a calorimeter, which is an insulated reaction vessel. eg a foam cup.The heat energy absorbed or released by a particular reaction is calculated using the expression.Heat = specific heat capacity of water x the temperature change x massOr H = c x
T x mWhere H = heat change (joules (J))C = heat capacity (J g
-1
 
°
C
-1
) for water c = 4.18 J g
-1
 
°
C
-1
m = mass (g) Note -Frequently the volume of water is measured and this can easily be converted to mass since 1.0 mL
1.0 gTo convert the heat change to molar enthalpy
oleObject1
where is n the number of moles of the reactant.It is necessary to divide by 1000 to convert the J to kJ and by the number of moles (n) to give kJ mol
-1
 Example
Given that 3.24 g of methanol was burnt and the heat used to heat 200 mL of water from 18.2
° 
C to 38.2
° 
C,calculate the molar enthalpy of combustion of methanol.
m = 3.24 g
T = 38.2 – 18.2 = 20
°
CM(CH
3
OH) = 12 + 3x1 + 16 + 1 = 32 g mol
-1
H= c x
T x m= 4.18 x 20 x 200= 16720 J2
 
USING AND CONTROLLING REACTIONS
m (water) = 200 mL (
200 g)n(CH
3
OH) = m/M= 3.24/32= 0.10125 mol
H=
oleObject2
=
oleObject3
H
 
= -165 kJ mol
 
-1
 
 Assumptions and approximations
It is assumed that
the calorimeter absorbed no heat.
Heat losses to the surroundings can be ignored.
The specific heat of the solution is the same as distilled water.
The mass of 1 mL of solution is 1 g.
Themochemical Equations
Thermochemical reactions are chemical equations that indicate:
The mole ratio of the reactants
The state of each reactant and product
The quantity of heat energy released (-) or absorbed (+) by the mole quantities of reactants or productsindicated in the equation.Example MgCO
3(s)
+ 2HCl
(aq)
 
MgCl
2(aq)
+ O
2(g)
 
H = -90.4 kJ mol
-1
 Specific Cases of enthalpy changes Molar enthalpy of combustion
of a substance is the quantity of heat energy released when 1.00 mole of pureelement or compound is burnt completely in oxygen under constant pressure.Example CH
4(g)
+ 2O
2
 
CO
2(g)
+ 2H
2
O
(l)
 
H = -890 kJ mol
-1
 EXAMPLE 
The fuel used in pocket cigarette lighters is butane, C 
4
 H 
10
. The molar enthalpy combustion value for butaneis 2874 kJ mol 
-1
. If 1.00 g of butane in a lighter was burnt beneath a steel can containing 1000 mL of water initially at 18.5
° 
C, calculate the theoretical maximum temperature reached by the water. Would you expect that the temperature is actually achieved? Discuss.
 Molar enthalpy of solution
of a substance is the quantity of heat energy released or absorbed when 1.00mole of the substance dissolves in sufficient solvent so that further dilution causes no further release or absorption of heat energy.Example NaOH
(s)
+ aq
Na
+(aq)
+ OH
-(aq)
 
H = -43 kJ mol
-1
 EXAMPLE 
 In an experiment to determine the the molar enthalpy of solution of potassium hydroxide, 4.9 g of potassiumhydroxide was added to 100 mL of distilled water in a polystyrene cup. The temperature of water increased  from 18.5
° 
C to 28.1
° 
C. Assuming that the specific heat of the solution is 4.18 J g 
-1
 
° 
-1
 , calculate the molar enthalpy of solution of potassium hydroxide.
 Molar enthalpy of neutralisation
is the quantity of heat energy released when 1.00 mole of hydrogen ions istransferred from an acid to a base in an acid-base reaction occurring in aqueous solution.Example NaOH
(aq)
+ HCl
(aq)
 
NaCl
(aq)
+ H
2
O
(l)
 
H = -57 kJ mol
-1
 EXAMPLE 
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