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Published by Pashtoon
Pashtunistan Movement in American Secret documents
Pashtunistan Movement in American Secret documents

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Published by: Pashtoon on May 19, 2008
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 Pre-Colonial Roots
Long before the British or the Sikhs appeared on the scene, the Eastern Afghans, whom we know broadly as Pathans, had developed separately from the Western Afghans. The former had their  political and economic ties with the State ruling in the Indus Valley, namely the Mughals; the latter with the Safavis of Iran. So much were the Western Afghans - the Abdalis (Durranis) especially-turned towards Iran that they adopted the Persian language in place of their 'native' Pashto. This isstill so today. The British were thus not only 'colonialists' in bringing the Eastern Afghans withinthe sub-continent; it was those people's historic and natural place. ... What about the extent of thisPakhtunistan? It is shown on Afghan maps as embracing not only the territory inhabited byPathans between the Indus and the Durand Line but also the whole great square of Baluchistansouth of Quetta, and no one of the territories named in the north, is Pathan at all.
Before betraying the trust and hopes of their brothers in Pakistan, the Afghan people will gohungry. It should be clear that Afghans always put pride in their nation ("mellat") before their wealth and well being since they have sacrificed so much for it before. Proof of the strength of thisspirit is in the Afghan's history of paying the high price of independence in the era of imperialism by fighting three wars against the British, thereby remaining isolated and undeveloped, while the peoples of India gained important material advantages (e.g. railroads), but sacrificed their prideand national identity to the Raj. 
On Pushtunistan, Professor Tucci commented that in the tribal areas the issue was not important.The people considered themselves as Yusufzai, Mamund, Afridi, etc. not Pushtoons. It was in thesettled areas where the tribal affiliations have broken down that the concept of a Pushtu nationalityhad taken root and under the influence of Afghan propaganda could become a major politicalforce. For this reason, said Tucci, the Government of Pakistan could not allow Afghan activity inthe settled areas. The Afghan consulate at Peshawar could not be allowed to resume its functions.
 Pashtunistan Politics
The report that Vice President Nixon had made statements in Afghanistan to the effect that hehoped the Pukhtoonistan issue could be solved was reported and commented upon in unfavorableterms here. The burden of most complaints was that Nixon should not have even taken note of such a "dead issue" and that his statement in effect adds fuel to the "ashes of a problem whichsince the establishment of Pakistan has ceased to exist." 
Radio Quetta of February 5, 1963, reported that Mr. Wali Khan, the son of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, the well known former leader of the Khodaye Khedmatgaran (Servants of God), made astatement denouncing the RGA's Pushtunistan campaign as "nonsense" which, if not halted, willelicit a "strong blow" from the Pushtuns of Pakistan. 
Aziz frankly admitted that Afghan agents operating out of Kandahar continue to spreadPushtunistan literature throughout the region, particularly the Quetta Division.
Jirga then adopted resolution on Pushtunistan, substance of which follows" "At this opportunitywhen Afghan nation reorganizing its national life on firm bases of democracy, freedom and justice,our religious, national and historical duty of supporting rights of people of Pushtunistan, whounfortunately still deprived of their natural right of self-determination and individual and socialrights, stands before us vividly. We representatives of nation in supporting and approving Govt's policy proclaim once again support of whole nation for Afghanistan's unchangeable policy in thisregard and await day when Pushtunistan issue would be settled in accordance with real wishes its people and leaders and our brethren in Pushtunistan would attain their rights." 
Coming to the present, the Prime Minister stated that his most serious current problem was tryingto cope with the "unmerciful pressure" being exerted on him by the protagonists of "Pushtunistan."Delegations from the tribal areas had been calling on him to urge direct action in achieving"Pushtunistan." They had been criticizing his Government for failing to encourage the tribes toeffect a forceful solution of the issue. The Prime Minister asked me what I though he should doabout such pressures. I replied that, in my personal view, he would be well advised to resist such pressures. ... The Prime Minister replied that he was having an exceedingly hard time, indeed,"holding off these firebrands." In response to my question, he asserted that the pressures beingexerted by those desiring forceful action on "Pushtunistan" now were far greater than the
countervailing counsels of those advocating cooperation with Pakistan in her hour of crisis.
[Abdul Ghaffar Khan] restated his interest in "self determination" for the Pathans, but also saidthat he did not wish to embarrass Pakistan, particularly at this time when Pakistan was at war withIndia. Askar Ali interpreted this to mean that AGK was no longer pushing for an independent or autonomous Pushtoonistan, but admitted that he could only draw this inference from the moderatetone of AGK's statements.
Etemadi pointed out that quiet RGA assurances to GOP that it would not put any pressure on Pak western border during hostilities had enabled Pak army concentrate its full strength against theIndians. In return RGA had expected as minimum a benign GOP policy in Pushtun areas. ...Afganistan did not have any territorial claims against Pakistan: Afghanistan demanded only fullrespect for the apartness and special character of the frontier regions and non-interference with thetraditional way of life of the Pushtuns.
A usually reliable source with extensive contacts on the Frontier tells us that "Pushtunistan"activity has been revived in South Waziristan near the Afghan border. The son of the Faqir of Ipiand his followers have been provided with a modern offset printing press, which is installed intheir mountain cave hideouts and is producing some well-printed pamplets pushing Pushtunistan.Also bribes are again being passed out for the flying of Pushtunistan flags along the Waziristan border. Our source coupled this report with news of Soviet arms deliveries to India and speculatesthat it is Russian rather than Indian money which is supporting the current revival. Hisrationalization is that the Soviets are concerned over recent deliveries of Chinese arms to Pakistanand possible further ChiCom inroads here, so hey are reinforcing their influence and activities inthe flanks. 
There are no longer garrisons in the tribal areas, and punitive expeditions are an extreme raritythese days. Even when government officials have been kidnapped recently, the Government hadreportedly anted up the ransom quietly rather than stir up trouble by punishing the tribecollectively as done by the British. When in doubt, officials placate the tribesmen, or resort to persuasion, bribery, and "divide and rule" tactics rather than force. ... The Consulate finds noevidence that "Pushtoonistan" is a viable movement in Pakistan, nor any current threat to theintegrity of the nation. The Pathans have never been able to work together, and there is nothing buta vague emotional attachment to the Pushto language and culture to unite tribes which have beenfeuding with one another for centuries.
Right-wing nationalist Afghan Mellat held pro-Pushtunistan demonstration December 2, attractingcrowd of about 500. Riot police much in evidence but no violence occurred. ... The general themeof demonstration was that RGA has let Pushtunistan slip through its fingers three times, thecurrent Subcontinent situation being the third.
We are concerned that domestic political pressures in Pakistan and Afghanistan may be pushing both countries contrary to their own interests and desires -- toward a confrontation over terrain andloyalties of Pushtun people. 
Afghan Amb voiced serious concern over impact on Afghanistan of current poor relations betweenGOP and Pathans of Pakistan as led by Wali Khan and NAP. He fears that continued pressure onPathan leadership in NWFP could lead to war between Afghanistan and Pakistan in which USSR might very well be drawn in.
Pashtunistan Revived. With the coup-makers themselves having demonstrated the ease with whicha few junior officers can take control, Kabul abounds with coup rumors. An already tense situationhas been exacerbated by the mass arrests. The "Pushtunistan" dispute with Pakistan may be theonly major political issue on which the Afghans are in general agreement. If they are not able to

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