countervailing counsels of those advocating cooperation with Pakistan in her hour of crisis.
[Abdul Ghaffar Khan] restated his interest in "self determination" for the Pathans, but also saidthat he did not wish to embarrass Pakistan, particularly at this time when Pakistan was at war withIndia. Askar Ali interpreted this to mean that AGK was no longer pushing for an independent or autonomous Pushtoonistan, but admitted that he could only draw this inference from the moderatetone of AGK's statements.
Etemadi pointed out that quiet RGA assurances to GOP that it would not put any pressure on Pak western border during hostilities had enabled Pak army concentrate its full strength against theIndians. In return RGA had expected as minimum a benign GOP policy in Pushtun areas. ...Afganistan did not have any territorial claims against Pakistan: Afghanistan demanded only fullrespect for the apartness and special character of the frontier regions and non-interference with thetraditional way of life of the Pushtuns.
A usually reliable source with extensive contacts on the Frontier tells us that "Pushtunistan"activity has been revived in South Waziristan near the Afghan border. The son of the Faqir of Ipiand his followers have been provided with a modern offset printing press, which is installed intheir mountain cave hideouts and is producing some well-printed pamplets pushing Pushtunistan.Also bribes are again being passed out for the flying of Pushtunistan flags along the Waziristan border. Our source coupled this report with news of Soviet arms deliveries to India and speculatesthat it is Russian rather than Indian money which is supporting the current revival. Hisrationalization is that the Soviets are concerned over recent deliveries of Chinese arms to Pakistanand possible further ChiCom inroads here, so hey are reinforcing their influence and activities inthe flanks.
There are no longer garrisons in the tribal areas, and punitive expeditions are an extreme raritythese days. Even when government officials have been kidnapped recently, the Government hadreportedly anted up the ransom quietly rather than stir up trouble by punishing the tribecollectively as done by the British. When in doubt, officials placate the tribesmen, or resort to persuasion, bribery, and "divide and rule" tactics rather than force. ... The Consulate finds noevidence that "Pushtoonistan" is a viable movement in Pakistan, nor any current threat to theintegrity of the nation. The Pathans have never been able to work together, and there is nothing buta vague emotional attachment to the Pushto language and culture to unite tribes which have beenfeuding with one another for centuries.
Right-wing nationalist Afghan Mellat held pro-Pushtunistan demonstration December 2, attractingcrowd of about 500. Riot police much in evidence but no violence occurred. ... The general themeof demonstration was that RGA has let Pushtunistan slip through its fingers three times, thecurrent Subcontinent situation being the third.
We are concerned that domestic political pressures in Pakistan and Afghanistan may be pushing both countries contrary to their own interests and desires -- toward a confrontation over terrain andloyalties of Pushtun people.
Afghan Amb voiced serious concern over impact on Afghanistan of current poor relations betweenGOP and Pathans of Pakistan as led by Wali Khan and NAP. He fears that continued pressure onPathan leadership in NWFP could lead to war between Afghanistan and Pakistan in which USSR might very well be drawn in.
Pashtunistan Revived. With the coup-makers themselves having demonstrated the ease with whicha few junior officers can take control, Kabul abounds with coup rumors. An already tense situationhas been exacerbated by the mass arrests. The "Pushtunistan" dispute with Pakistan may be theonly major political issue on which the Afghans are in general agreement. If they are not able to