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Published by: ssooshi on May 19, 2008
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Thesis: The Golden Ratio is not only a simple proportion, but also a proportion connectedto our lives in a way that it can revolutionize the world by providing explanations of hownature functions. A line division that creates a proportion where the longer half is related to thewhole line the same way the shorter half is related to the longer half is called the GoldenRatio. In simpler form, the ratio is 1:1.618 and ongoing. The number is very irrationaland it is special because we are seeing more and more implications of it in our lives astime advances. There were many different implications of the Golden Ratio throughouthistory. Many of them were different, and that resulted in the different names used to de-fine the Golden Ratio such as Phi, Divine Proportion, Golden Number, etc. The GoldenRatio was given the name of Phi (
), the first Greek letter of Phi Dias who was a Greek sculptor around 490 to 430 B.C. The man who decided the name, Mark Barr, picked PhiDias because he had included the Golden Ratio in his sculptures. The first real definitionof the Golden Ratio was written around 300 B.C. in Euclid's The Elements, a mathemat-ics textbook that defined mathematical terms, when Euclid defined proportion with thesewords: "a straight line is said to have been cut in extreme and mean ratio when, as thewhole line is to the greater segment, so is the greater to the lesser." This definition relatesto Mario Livio's comment in his article from Plus Magazine, “Who could have guessedthat this innocent-looking line division would have implications for numerous natural phenomena ranging from the leaf and seed arrangements of plants to the structure of thecrystals of some aluminum alloys, and from the arts to the stock market?” This questiondescribes all the impacts that the golden ratio had on different things in life, such as art,economy, science and in general how things are made to be. For art, the golden ratio hasrevolutionized architecture and photography because people try to structure things so thatit could make the best appeal possible. For economy, the golden ratio has some relationwith the stock market. For science, the golden ratio can be related to nature, structure of human beings, animals and other living things. This "line division" did indeed lead todiscoveries in market trends, explanations for the way nature grows, and the structures of many famous pieces of artwork.When referring to the Golden Ratio, many times the Fibonacci sequence is men-tioned as well. This is because there is a major connection between the two things. In the12th century an Italian mathematician, Leonardo Pisano Bigollo (now known as Leon-ardo of Pisa or Fibonacci), experimented with an ideal scenario of population growth us-ing rabbits. He was able to generate from this the well-known Fibonacci sequence. In thisnumber sequence, the numbers go in a pattern as follows: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, ... It may notlook very impressive at first, but this sequence was where the Golden Ratio had general-ized from. “The Phi function is intimately related to the Fibonacci series of numbers,named for the Renaissance mathematician who called attention to its properties. In a Fi- bonacci series, a number is selected: the next number in the series is the sum of that num- ber and the preceding number. (Bangs, 158)” When any number from the sequence is di-
vided by the previous number, the answer will come close to 1.618. This was also a sig-nificant point about the numbers from the sequence. The relationship between the GoldenRatio and the numbers from his sequence, Fibonacci had contributed greatly to theGolden Ratio's discovery. In the recent years, the Fibonacci numbers were taken further and had matched with the major “top or bottom” of market trends. It's one way theGolden Ratio is connected to how our economy functions. “Since January 14th, 2000,when the Dow Industrials hit its closing all-time high — over six years ago, we havenoted that every major subsequent top or bottom has occurred in a Fibonacci .618/.382ratio number of trading days with another top or bottom and January 14th, 2000. In manycases, even minor tops or bottoms have occurred in a phi ratio with another top or bot-tom. We call these pairs Fibonacci phi mates. Further, because this has been occurringwith uncanny regularity, we have been able to successfully identify future trend turn dateswithin +/- 3 days by applying the same phi mate analysis into the future. (McHugh,<http://www.financialsense.com/fsu/editorials/mchugh/2006/0327.html>)" It isn't only inthe Dow industry where the numbers from the Fibonacci Sequence connect to the eco-nomic patterns because according to comment made by Steve Belmont featured in theDaily Reckoning article , “Since markets are human creations, they respond to humanrhythms. Like all human emotions, fear and greed tend to reach a fever pitch and then,invariably, wane. One could say market corrections are basically physical manifestationsof waning human emotions. Italian mathematician Leonardo Fibonacci figured out a wayto measure the ebbs and flows in human emotions. This measurement is called a Fibo-nacci sequence or the “golden ratio. (Denning,<http://www.dailyreckoning.com.au/golden-ratio/2007/08/13/>)” It is not impossible thateverything we do in our lives can be connected to the Golden Ratio. This makes a hugediscovery, impacting our social lives and our society in general. There is a pattern in whatwe do because we are human beings, and this pattern can be used to improve our lives,advance further in our abilities to contribute to the society. This would be a start for therevolutionizing of our world from using our lives to further advance ourselves.There were architecture and paintings in history that used the Golden Ratio. “Thegolden section, or ‘golden rectangle’, is said to be one of the most visually satisfying of all geometrical forms. This calculable formula for beauty perceived in a ratio of perfect proportion was known to the Greeks who, as early as the fifth century BC, had alreadyapplied its harmonious balance to the Athenian Parthenon. It was also much used by Ren-aissance architects and artists in their triumph over matter. Through mathematics, they believed, beauty and harmony could be calculated. (Porter,<http://books.google.com/books?id=I6ilomUOgoMC&printsec=frontcover>)” Since theGolden Ratio is known to make things look pleasing to the eye, there were many famous buildings and artwork made using the ratio. Some examples are the Great Pyramid of Giza, The Parthenon, and the "Sacrament of the Last Supper" painting by Salvador Dali.These examples are all very well-known works of art, and they include the ratio thatmakes them so visually appealing. A golden triangle can be drawn from The Pyramid of Giza because "Half of the base, the slant height, and the height from the vertex to the cen-
ter create a right triangle. When that half of the base equal to one, the slant height wouldequal to the value of Phi and the height would equal to the square root of Phi. The picture below is of the Pyramid of Giza, and the yellow outlined triangle in the middle is agolden triangle. (<http://library.thinkquest.org/trio/TTQ05063/phibeauty4.htm>)The Parthenon has golden rectangles in its exterior structure. The picture below isof the Parthenon and the yellow outlined squares on the building are squares with meas-urements of the Fibonacci numbers, therefore it also portrays the golden rectangle.In Salvador Dali's painting, you can divide the picture into rectangles with lengthsand widths that equal to the Golden Ratio.Many Renaissance artists used the Divine Proportion in their works. This applica-tion had been seen in some of Leonardo Da Vinci's paintings. Although for Leonardo DaVinci's "Mona Lisa" piece that had included the Golden Ratio (a golden rectangle thatframed Mona Lisa's face perfectly), nothing really proves that Da Vinci had purposelyused the Golden Ratio in his painting. "For The Da Vinci Code, the lingering questionsleft behind are how much of traditional church teachings are fact, and why people are sowilling to accept things that are probably not true. Our 
Code ends with two similar questions. The literature on the golden ratio is full of claims that have little or no basis infact and in some cases are known to be false. Why is it that these myths live on? And whyare we so eager to believe everything we are told?(<https://notes.utk.edu/Bio/greenberg.nsf/0/3ad194fabe1afec785256e9400823537?OpenDocument>)" In Keith's article, he talks of how the Da Vinci Code by Dan Brown hasgiven us possible truths that cannot be really proven. An example is when he mentionsthe paintings of artists who we assumed to have applied the Golden Ratio to their works, but in reality there is no actual proof that the artists were aware of this or that they usedthe ratio for a purpose other than an aesthetic one. On the other hand, Keith concludeswith the fact that the connection of the Golden Ratio with nature is definite, and it pro-vides us with the explanations for the nature of growth. Even though some artists like DaVinci, do not give the impression that they were well aware of using the Golden Ratio intheir works, there still are other artists and famous people who were aware of it and diduse the Golden Ratio. The reason for believing that Da Vinci had probably used the ratioin his works is because of his relationship with Luca Pacioli. Pacioli was the one whowrote The Divine Proportion, a book about the Golden Ratio. "Luca Pacioli wrote a book called De Divina Proportione (The Divine Proportion) in 1509. It contains drawingsmade by Leonardo da Vinci of the 5 Platonic solids. Leonardo Da Vinci first called it thesectio aurea (Latin for the golden section).(<http://jwilson.coe.uga.edu/EMT668/EMAT6680.2000/Obara/Emat6690/Golden%20Rat

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