Binders hold the ingredients in a tablet together.Binders are usuallystarches,sugars,celluloseor modified cellulose such asmicrocrystalline
cellulose,hydroxypropyl cellulose,lactose, or sugar alcohols likexylitol,sorbitolor maltitol.
Disintegrantsexpand and dissolve when wet causing the tablet to break apart in thedigestive tract,
releasing the active ingredients for absorption.Examples of disintegrants include: crosslinkedpolyvinyl pyrrolidone,sodium starch glycolate,
crosslinkedsodium carboxymethyl cellulose(crosscarmellose).Fillers fill out the size of a tablet or capsule, making it practical to produce and convenient for theconsumer to use. By increasing the bulk volume, the fillers make it possible for the final product to havethe proper volume for patient handling.Glidantsare used to promote powder flow by reducing interparticle friction and cohesion. These are usedin combination with lubricants as they have no ability to reduce die wall friction. Examples includecolloidalsilicon dioxide,talc, andmagnesium carbonate.
Lubricantsprevent ingredients from clumping together and from sticking to the tablet punches or capsulefilling machine. Lubricants also ensure that tablet formation and ejection can occur withlowfrictionbetween the solid and die wall.Common minerals liketalcor silica, andfats, e.g. vegetablestearin,magnesium stearateor stearic
acidare the most frequently used lubricants in tablets or hard gelatin capsules.[e
There are two different type of raw material one is active or it may be termed as active pharmaceuticalingredient (API) and another one may be inert substances which aid in formulation development andnecessarily add some of its technical properties to the drug products. It may be either bulk increasingagent, viscosity inducers, and formulation stabilizer against oxygen, atmospheric water, andtemperature or hydrolysis inhibitors.
Active or therapeutic raw materials
There are various types of active ingredient, which are manufactured in specially, designed plants usingdifferent machinery, following different reaction processes and stored in adequately protectedenvironment. Firstly their processing is so highly sophisticated that a standard of cleanliness andenvironment control has to maintain. These should be protected from temperature, air, water and lightthat may seriously harm on the physical and or the chemical stability of the drug product. These factorsmay leads to harsh degradation reaction such as hydrolysis, oxidation, decarboxylation, addition, orelimination. Other serious disadvantages likely to come in the drug product may be due to the physicalchanges associated with the drug like sublimation, polymorphism, change in the particle size distribution