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Esds Tutorial

Esds Tutorial

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Published by: pontoo on Apr 20, 2010
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12/08/2012

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 Axonn Proprietary Information
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Tutorial
By Walter Debus
Director of EngineeringAxonn, LLC
Technical Memorandum
August 4, 2006
 
DOC# 8545-0004-01
 Axonn Proprietary InformationThis document is intended solely for use by Axonn employees
 
2
Origin of DocumentThe following tutorial was taken off the WEB from a series of articles. The informationwas then reformatted into MS Word and placed under an Axonn TechnicalMemorandum cover.The material presented is a good tutorial on Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) for those notfamiliar with the subject.Everyone who comes in contact with ESD sensitive components should read part 1. Indoing so, the ESD awareness within Axonn will be improved. Table 1 and paragraph 3of part 1 clearly highlight the business reasons why ESD awareness is important toAxonn.All ESD induced failures cause Axonn problems. The Catastrophic failures arestraightforward to determine, the unit no longer works. A Latent defect failure, on theother hand, is more difficult to identify. A device that is exposed to an ESD event maybe partially degraded, yet continue to perform its intended function. However, theoperating life of the device may be reduced dramatically. This can cause customers of Axonn to perceive our products as being low quality, with the potential of future lostsales.
 
DOC# 8545-0004-01
 Axonn Proprietary InformationThis document is intended solely for use by Axonn employees
 
3
Fundamentals of Electrostatic DischargePart One --- Introduction to ESDHistory & Background
 
To many people, static electricity is little more than the shock experienced when touching a metal doorknob after walking across a carpeted room or sliding across a car seat. However, static electricity has been a seriousindustrial problem for centuries. As early as the 1400's, European and Caribbean forts were using static controlprocedures and devices to prevent electrostatic discharge ignition of black powder stores. By the 1860's, paper mills throughout the U.S. employed basic grounding, flame ionization techniques, and steam drums to dissipatestatic electricity from the paper web as it traveled through the drying process.
 
The age of electronics brought with it new problems associated with static electricity and electrostatic discharge.The consequence of electronic devices becoming faster and smaller, is that their sensitivity to ESD increased.Today, ESD impacts productivity and product reliability in virtually every aspect of today's electronicsenvironment. Many aspects of electrostatic control in the electronics industry also apply in other industries suchas clean room applications and graphic arts.
 
Despite a great deal of effort during the past decade, ESD still affects production yields, manufacturing costs,product quality, product reliability, and profitability. Industry experts have estimated average product losses due tostatic to range from 8-33% (Table 1). Others estimate the actual cost of ESD damage to the electronics industryas running into the billions of dollars annually. The cost of damaged devices themselves ranges from only a fewcents for a simple diode to several hundred dollars for complex hybrids. When associated costs of repair andrework, shipping, labor, and overhead are included, clearly the opportunities exist for significant improvements.
 
Table 1
 Informal Summary of Static Losses by Level
 
Static Losses Reported
 
Description
 
Min.Loss
 
Max.Loss
 
Est. Avg.Loss
 
Component Manufacturers
 
4%
 
97%
 
16-22%
 
Subcontractors
 
3%
 
70%
 
9-15%
 
Contractors
 
2%
 
35%
 
8-14%
 
User 
 
5%
 
70%
 
27-33%
 
Source: Stephen Halperin,"Guidelines for Static Control Management," Eurostat, 1990.
 

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