3UNIT FOUR: THE CONTROL OF CHEMICAL REACTIONSChapterChapterChapterChapter 11116: Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Equilibria6: Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Equilibria6: Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Equilibria6: Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Equilibria(Text from Barron’s AP Chemistry and Chemistry, by Kotz, Treichel, and Weaver)
Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Equilibria (Chapter Sixteen)
16.4 Using Equilibrium Constants in CalculationsIt is possible to simplify quadratic or higher order equations when
is either very large or very small.When
is very small, a negligible amount of reactants is converted into products. Thus, assume thatconcentration of reactants and products do not change significantly.When
is very large, assume that all of one reactant will be completely used up. Use algebra to test for thelimiting reactant.16.5 More About Balanced Equations and Equilibrium ConstantsTo find
after multiplying or dividing a chemical equation by a constant, raise
to the constant that theequation was multiplied by. Treat division as multiplying by the reciprocal (Ex. If the equation was divided by2, raise
to the ½ power)To find
after reversing a chemical equation, take the reciprocal of
. This is mathematically the same asmultiplying the equation by -1.To find the overall
after adding reactions together, multiply the equilibrium constants of the reactions thatwere added together—
16.6 Disturbing a Chemical EquilibriumChemical equilibrium between reactants and products can be disturbed by1.
Changing the temperature2.
Changing the concentration of a reactant or product3.
Changing the volume (for systems involving gases)
Le Chatelier’s Principle
Whenever a system in dynamic equilibrium is disrupted by changes in chemical concentrations or physicalconditions, the system will respond with internal physical and chemical changes to reestablish a newequilibrium state.1)
The only variable to change value of
In an exothermic reaction, think of heat as a product of the reaction. When there is more heat, thereactant side is favored (which causes
to decrease, since the numbers in the denominator, thereactant concentrations, are increasing). Vice versa, when there is less heat, the product side isfavored, causing