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AP Chem, Chemical Equilibria Chapter Sixteen

AP Chem, Chemical Equilibria Chapter Sixteen

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A guide to Chemical Equilibrium.
A guide to Chemical Equilibrium.

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Published by: Julie on Apr 21, 2010
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1UNIT FOUR: THE CONTROL OF CHEMICAL REACTIONSChapterChapterChapterChapter 11116: Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Equilibria6: Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Equilibria6: Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Equilibria6: Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Equilibria(Text from Barron’s AP Chemistry and Chemistry, by Kotz, Treichel, and Weaver)
Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Equilibria (Chapter Sixteen) 
 
16.1 The Nature of the Equilibrium StateA state is at equilibrium when both the forward and reverse reactions continue to occur at equal rates sothat no net change is observed.16.2 The Equilibrium Constant and Reaction QuotientFor the chemical reaction:
++
, the equilibrium constant
is


 In the equilibrium constant expression, all concentrations are equilibrium values, and the value of
dependson the particular reaction and on the temperature. Units are never given with
. When writing anequilibrium constant expression, remember that the following are notnotnotnot included:
 
Concentration of solid reactants and products
 
Concentration of pure liquids
 
Concentration of solvent (for example, in a reaction taking place in an aqueous solution, the molarconcentration of water is not included in the expression)Note that
represents the equilibrium constant when concentration is expressed in molarity units. Thesymbol
is used when the partial pressures of gases represent the amounts of reactants and products.
The Significance of 
 
1
: Product-favored reaction; at equilibrium, the concentration of products greater than theconcentration of the reactants. A very large equilibrium constant means that the reaction essentially goes tocompletion. Thus, the reaction is spontaneous when
>1
.
1:
Reactant-favored reaction; at equilibrium, the concentration of the reactants is greater than theconcentration of the products. A very small equilibrium constant means that very little product is formedand that virtually no reaction occurs. Thus, the reaction is nonspontaneous when
<1
.
=1:
There are approximately equal concentrations of reactions and products at equilibrium.Consider the equilibrium law, where the concentrations of the products are in the numerator and theconcentrations of the denominator are in the denominator. For
to be greater than 1, the numerator valuesmust be greater than the denominator values—thus, there must be greater concentrations of products thanreactants. For
to be less than 1, the denominator values must be greater than the numerator values—thus, there must be greater concentrations of reactants than products.
 
2UNIT FOUR: THE CONTROL OF CHEMICAL REACTIONSChapterChapterChapterChapter 11116: Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Equilibria6: Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Equilibria6: Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Equilibria6: Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Equilibria(Text from Barron’s AP Chemistry and Chemistry, by Kotz, Treichel, and Weaver)
Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Equilibria (Chapter Sixteen) 
 
The Reaction Quotient,
 
For the chemical reaction:
++
, the reaction quotient
is


 This is identical to the previously discussed equilibrium law, except to find
, concentration values at anypoint as the reaction proceeds may be used, while to find
, the concentrations are at equilibrium.
Principles Involving 
 
If
does not change with time, the reaction is in a state of equilibrium and
=
.
<:
There are more reactants than necessary for equilibrium. The reaction will then move to the right,as the excess reactants need to be converted to products in order to reach equilibrium.
>:
There are more products than necessary for equilibrium. The reaction will the move to the left, asthe excess products need to be converted to reactants in order to reach equilibrium.
=:
The reaction is at equilibrium.The logic behind the above relationships can be understood by examining the equilibrium law:


 In the equilibrium law, the concentrations of the products are in the numerator, while the concentrations ofthe reactants are in the denominator.
is the ratio of these concentrations at equilibrium. When
is lessthan
, the denominator of
must be greater than that of
—thus, when
<
, there are more reactantsthan necessary. Likewise, when
is greater than
, the numerator of
must be greater than of
—thus,when
>
, there are more products when necessary.16.3 Determining an Equilibrium ConstantAn ICE table allows one to calculate all concentrations at the equilibrium state, given minimal information.I: Initial concentrationC: Change in concentration, where C = E - IE: Equilibrium concentrationBecome familiar with solving problems using ICE tables.
 
3UNIT FOUR: THE CONTROL OF CHEMICAL REACTIONSChapterChapterChapterChapter 11116: Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Equilibria6: Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Equilibria6: Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Equilibria6: Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Equilibria(Text from Barron’s AP Chemistry and Chemistry, by Kotz, Treichel, and Weaver)
Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Equilibria (Chapter Sixteen) 
 
16.4 Using Equilibrium Constants in CalculationsIt is possible to simplify quadratic or higher order equations when
is either very large or very small.When
is very small, a negligible amount of reactants is converted into products. Thus, assume thatconcentration of reactants and products do not change significantly.When
is very large, assume that all of one reactant will be completely used up. Use algebra to test for thelimiting reactant.16.5 More About Balanced Equations and Equilibrium ConstantsTo find
after multiplying or dividing a chemical equation by a constant, raise
to the constant that theequation was multiplied by. Treat division as multiplying by the reciprocal (Ex. If the equation was divided by2, raise
to the ½ power)To find
after reversing a chemical equation, take the reciprocal of
. This is mathematically the same asmultiplying the equation by -1.To find the overall
after adding reactions together, multiply the equilibrium constants of the reactions thatwere added together—

=
×
 16.6 Disturbing a Chemical EquilibriumChemical equilibrium between reactants and products can be disturbed by1.
 
Changing the temperature2.
 
Changing the concentration of a reactant or product3.
 
Changing the volume (for systems involving gases)
Le Chatelier’s Principle 
Whenever a system in dynamic equilibrium is disrupted by changes in chemical concentrations or physicalconditions, the system will respond with internal physical and chemical changes to reestablish a newequilibrium state.1)
 
Temperature
 
The only variable to change value of
 
 
In an exothermic reaction, think of heat as a product of the reaction. When there is more heat, thereactant side is favored (which causes
to decrease, since the numbers in the denominator, thereactant concentrations, are increasing). Vice versa, when there is less heat, the product side isfavored, causing
to increase).

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