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2-Lecture Notes Lesson2 2

2-Lecture Notes Lesson2 2

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Published by: kstu1112 on Apr 21, 2010
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05/26/2010

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Standard & Canonical Forms
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
 
Learn
 
 Binary Logic
and
 BOOLEAN Algebra
Learn How to Map a
 Boolean Expression
into Logic
Circuit Implementation
Learn How To Manipulate
 Boolean Expressions
and
 Simplify Them
Lesson Ojectives
Learn howtoderivea Boolean expression of a function defined by its truth table. Thederived expressions may be in one of two possible standard forms:
The Sumof Min-terms
or the
 Product of Max-Terms
.2.
 
Learn how tomapthese expressions into logic circuit implementations (2-Level Implementations).
MinTerms
 
Consider a system of 3 input signals (variables) x, y, & z.
 
A term which ANDs all input variables, either in the true or complement form,is called a minterm.
 
Thus, the considered 3-input system has 8 minterms, namely:
 z  y x z  y x z  y x z  y x z  y x z  y x z  y x z  y x
&,,,,,,
 
Each minterm equals 1 at exactly one particular input combination and isequal to 0 at all other combinations
 
Thus, for example,
 z  y x
is always equal to 0 except for the inputcombination
 xyz 
=
000
, where it is equal to 1.
 
Accordingly, the minterm
 z  y x
is referred to as
m
0
.
 
In general, minterms are designated
m
i
, where
i
corresponds the inputcombination at which this minterm is equal to 1.
 
 
For the 3-input system under consideration, the number of possible inputcombinations is 2
3
, or 8. This means that the system has a total of 8 mintermsas follows:
 
m
0
=
 
 z  y x
 
=1 IFF
 xyz 
=
000
,
otherwise it equals 0
 
 
m
1
=
 z  y x
=1 IFF
 xyz 
=
001
,
otherwise it equals 0
 
 
m
2
=
 z  y x 
=1 IFF
 xyz 
=
010
,
otherwise it equals 0
 
 
m
3
=
 yz  x 
=1 IFF
 xyz 
=
011
,
otherwise it equals 0
 
 
m
4
=
 z  y x
=1 IFF
 xyz 
=
100
,
otherwise it equals 0
 
 
m
5
=
 z  y x 
=1 IFF
 xyz 
=
101
,
otherwise it equals 0
 
 
m
=
 z  xy
=1 IFF
 xyz 
=
110
,
otherwise it equals 0
 
 
m
=
 xyz 
=1 IFF
 xyz 
=
111
,
otherwise it equals 0
 
In general,
 
For 
n
-input variables, the number of minterms = the total number of possibleinput combinations = 2
n
.
 
A minterm = 0 at all input combinations except one where the minterm = 1.
MaxTerms
 
Consider a circuit of 3 input signals (variables) x, y, & z.
 
A term which ORs all input variables, either in the true or complement form,is called a Maxterm.
 
With 3-input variables, the system under consideration has a total of 8Maxterms, namely:
)(&)(,)(,)(),(,)(,)(),(
 z  y x  z  y x  z  y x  z  y x  z  y x  z  y x  z  y x  z  y x 
++++++++++++++++
 
 
Each Maxterm equals 0 at exactly one of the 8 possible input combinationsand is equal to 1 at all other combinations.
 
For example,
)(
 z  y x 
++
equals 1 at all input combinations except for thecombination
 xyz 
=
000
, where it is equal to 0.
 
Accordingly, the Maxterm
)(
 z  y x 
++
is referred to as
0
.
 
In general, Maxterms are designated
i
, where
i
corresponds to the inputcombination at which this Maxterm is equal to 0.
 
 
For the 3-input system, the number of possible input combinations is 2
3
, or 8.This means that the system has a total of 8 Maxterms as follows:
 
0
 
=
)(
 z  y x 
++
=0 IFF
 xyz 
=
000
,
otherwise it equals 1
 
 
1
=
)(
 z  y x 
++
= 0 IFF
 xyz 
=
001
,
otherwise it equals 1
 
 
2
=
)(
 z  y x 
++
= 0 IFF
 xyz 
=
010
,
otherwise it equals 1
 
 
3
=
)(
 z  y x 
++
= 0 IFF
 xyz 
=
011
,
otherwise it equals 1
 
 
4
=
)(
 z  y x 
++
= 0 IFF
 xyz 
=
100
,
otherwise it equals 1
 
 
5
=
)(
 z  y x 
++
= 0 IFF
 xyz 
=
101
,
otherwise it equals 1
 
 
=
)(
 z  y x 
++
= 0 IFF
 xyz 
=
110
,
otherwise it equals 1
 
 
=
)(
 z  y x 
++
= 0 IFF
 xyz 
=
111
,
otherwise it equals 1
 
In general,
 
For 
n
-input variables, the number of Maxterms = the total number of possibleinput combinations = 2
n
.
 
A Maxterm = 1 at all input combinations except one where the Maxterm = 0.
Imprtant Result
Using De-Morgan’s theorem, or truth tables, it can be easily shown that:
)(.....,,,,
12210
==
n
m M 
 
Expressing Functions as a
 Sum of Minterms
and Product of Maxterms
 
Example:
Consider the function
 F 
defined by the shown truth table Now let’srewritethe table, with fewadded columns.
 
A column
i
indicating the input combination
 
Four columns of minterms
m
2
,
m
4
,
m
5
and
m
 
 
One last column
OR-ing
the above minterms (
m
2
 + m
4
+ m
5
 + m
)
 
 x y z
0 0 0 00 0 1 00 1 0 10 1 1 01 0 0 11 0 1 11 1 0 01 1 1 1

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