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ngukur antena

ngukur antena

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Published by made_pmj

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Published by: made_pmj on Apr 22, 2010
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05/22/2013

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 Antenna Measurements
The electrical characteristics of an antenna that are of interest to obtainby direct measurement are:1) The frequency at which the antenna is tuned.2) The gain.3) The radiation pattern.
Tuning of an antenna.
To check if an antenna is tuned at the correct frequency, we can use aDirectional Coupler and a Spectrum Analyzer. The signal is internally generated by the Tracking Generator of the Spectrum Analyzer, which isconnected to the input port of the Directional Coupler. The antenna isconnected to the output port of the Directional Coupler.
INPUT ANTENNA UNDER MEASUREMENTSPECTRUM ANALYZER  WITH TRACKING GENERATOR TG outSA inDIRECTIONAL COUPLER OUTPUTREFLECTED
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The signal reflected by the antenna is sampled at the reflected port of the Directional Coupler and displayed on the Spectrum Analyzer. We canthen check if the minimum amount of reflected power corresponds to thecorrect frequency value, and if the amount of reflected power is low enough. Be careful to correctly terminate the other ports with 50
 
Ω
 dummy loads if the Directional Coupler is of the bidirectional type and tokeep the cables as short as possible to avoid any resonance effect. The bestelectric length for cables is a N times the half wavelength.To easily read the value of the reflected power, a calibration of theSpectrum Analyzer is required. In a first step, the reflected power when noantenna is connected to the output port of the Directional Coupler shouldbe measured, and this value should be set as the reference value. In asecond step, the power reflected by the antenna under test should bemeasured. In this way, we measure how much lower the reflected power is, in comparison to the case in which all the power is reflected.
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For our quarter-wave omnidirectional antenna we got the followinggraph on the Spectrum Analyzer’s screen: We can see that the antenna is correctly tuned at 2.4 GHz, and thereflected power is about 35 dB less than the case without the antenna.This is a good result.
Measuring the gain.
To be consistent in comparing different antennas, it is necessary to havea standard environment surrounding the antenna. Ideally, measurementsshould be made with the measured antenna so far removed from any objects causing environmental effects that it can be considered in openspace. This is an impractical situation. Professional laboratories useelectromagnetic anechoic chambers (also called echo-free chambers) thatsimulate almost perfectly the open space situation. These are very expensive and for our purposes can be substituted by a roof, a terrace or anopen field. The place should be as far as possible (at least 50 m) frompower lines, aerials and microwave radio transmitters and without any metallic structure or conductive surface, concrete walls, other building,trees, etc. This is often difficult to achieve, but the environment should becontrolled so that successful and accurate measurements can be made in areasonable wide area.
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