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Weighing the GATS on a Development Scale: The Case of Tourism in Goa, India

Weighing the GATS on a Development Scale: The Case of Tourism in Goa, India

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In 2002, EQUATIONS studied the impacts of tourism on two specific coastal stretches in Goa, a popular international tourist designation on the western coast of India. This study aims at understanding how international trade agreements such as the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) intersect with the development priorities and possibilities that tourism claims. Goa, and the specific stretches in North Goa, was chosen both for the significant rise in tourism that it has seen and the presence of large hotels – both international and domestic chains. The study raises concerns about environmental, social, economic and cultural impacts and connects them with the notion of economic social and cultural rights. Case studies of two hotels- the Taj and Mariott are also part of the study.

Publisher: Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS)
Contact: info@equitabletourism.org , +91.80.25457607
Visit: www.equitabletourism.org, http://www.equitabletourism.org/stage/readfull.php?AID=770

Keywords: General Agreement on Trade in Services, GATS, Development, India, Tourism, EQUATIONS
In 2002, EQUATIONS studied the impacts of tourism on two specific coastal stretches in Goa, a popular international tourist designation on the western coast of India. This study aims at understanding how international trade agreements such as the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) intersect with the development priorities and possibilities that tourism claims. Goa, and the specific stretches in North Goa, was chosen both for the significant rise in tourism that it has seen and the presence of large hotels – both international and domestic chains. The study raises concerns about environmental, social, economic and cultural impacts and connects them with the notion of economic social and cultural rights. Case studies of two hotels- the Taj and Mariott are also part of the study.

Publisher: Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS)
Contact: info@equitabletourism.org , +91.80.25457607
Visit: www.equitabletourism.org, http://www.equitabletourism.org/stage/readfull.php?AID=770

Keywords: General Agreement on Trade in Services, GATS, Development, India, Tourism, EQUATIONS

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS) on Apr 22, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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2
 A 
BSTRACT
 
 This study aims to provide insight on how recent developments in the tourism industry inGoa have affected small communities in Goa in light of both current developments andpotential developments as per India’s commitments within the GATS framework. Morespecifically, the study considers two areas of Goa: the Chapora-Sinquerim and Miramar-Caranzalem shorelines and adjacent communities, and two hotel chains in both areas; the TajFort Aguada Resort and the Marriott Goa respectively. An analysis of the relevant policy and regulation at the national and state level is provided, as well as a consideration of theimplications of the GATS on the tourism sector in Goa. With this, we provide insight onhow these three levels of policy mechanisms relate to each other and what discrepanciesexist. Moreover, by relating the policy environment with current case studies, a morepragmatic approach is facilitated in determining how closely firms operating within theindustry adhere to the policy environment, and what effects the industry has on localcommunities.
EQUATIONS, 198, 2nd Cross, Church Road, New Thippasandra, Bangalore 560075, India. All comments can be forwarded toresearch@equitabletourism.org . This case study was conducted by a teamled by Benny Kuruvilla. Janak Rana Ghose assisted in the report writing, Bianca Jaymeeta Gracias and Ashok Mathew were part of the field research team and Mario Almeida and K T Suresh comprised the subjectconsultative team. This study was commissioned by SOMO (The Netherlands) and supported by grants fromHIVOS (The Netherlands) and Forum Syd (Sweden).EQUATIONS thanks Anup Mathew Thomas for the photographs (except Appendix 1) and gratefully acknowledges comments from Myriam Vander Stichele, Elizabeth Tuerk, Nina Rao, Ellen Gould and T.T.Sreekumar. None of the above are responsible for the opinions expressed in the report. Any errors oromissions remain the responsibility of EQUATIONS
.
 
 
3
 T
 ABLE
O
F
C
ONTENTS
 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 
............................................................................................... 5
 
1. INTRODUCTION
...................................................................................................... 7
 1.1.
 
S
COPE OF THE
GATS................................................................................................71.2.
 
T
HE
T
OURISM
S
ECTOR
U
NDER
GATS......................................................................91.3.
 
T
OURISM IN
G
OA
....................................................................................................10
2. STUDY AREAS
.......................................................................................................... 11
 2.1.
 
O
VERVIEW OF
G
OA
................................................................................................112.2.
 
C
HAPORA
-S
INQUERIM
............................................................................................122.3.
 
M
IRAMAR
-C
ARANZALEM
.......................................................................................13
3. PROFILE OF HOTELS
........................................................................................... 14
 3.1.
 
T
HE
G
OA
M
ARRIOTT
R
ESORT
................................................................................153.2.
 
T
HE
T
AJ
F
ORT
A
GUADA
B
EACH
R
ESORT
...............................................................16
4. IMPACTS
.................................................................................................................... 18
 4.1.
 
E
NVIRONMENTAL
...................................................................................................18
4.1.1. Direct Effects 
...................................................................................................... 18
 
4.1.2. Regulatory Failure 
............................................................................................... 19
 
4.1.3. Classification of Coastal Areas and Regulations 
........................................................ 21
 
4.1.4. The Goa 
 
 Marriott Resort 
.................................................................................. 22
 
4.1.5. The Taj Fort Aguada Beach Resort 
........................................................................ 23
 4.2.
 
E
MPLOYMENT
........................................................................................................25
4.2.1. The Goa Marriott Resort 
...................................................................................... 25
 
4.2.2. The Taj Fort Aguada Beach Resort 
........................................................................ 27 
 4.3
 
L
OCAL
C
OMMUNITIES
.............................................................................................29
4.3.1. Women 
.............................................................................................................. 29
 
4.3.2. Children 
............................................................................................................. 30
 
4.3.3. The Residents of Sinquerim and The Taj Fort Aguada Beach Resort 
............................. 32
 4.4.
 
L
OCAL
E
CONOMIES
................................................................................................33
5. DOMESTIC POLICY 
................................................................................................ 35
 5.1.
 
N
ATIONAL
P
OLICY
.................................................................................................355.2.
 
T
OURISM
P
OLICY IN THE
S
TATE OF
G
OA
................................................................36
6. THE GATS AND TOURISM
................................................................................... 38
 6.1.
 
P
ROFILE OF THE
GATS
IN
I
NDIA
............................................................................396.2.
 
I
NDIA
S
C
OMMITMENTS
.........................................................................................41
6.2.1. Article I - Scope 
.................................................................................................. 46 
 
6.2.2. Article IV, XIV and XIX - Safeguards 
................................................................. 47 
 
6.2.3. Article VI - Domestic Regulation 
........................................................................... 49
 

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