These elements are visualised in the sketch based on thetimeline conventions. Although some of the existing videoauthoring tools present sound level with timelines as thesecond rectangle shows, existing software allows limitedwritten annotations on a video sequence, and eventually itdoes not provide sufficient functionality for externalisingmultiple viewpoints. Especially the top sequence labelled as"movement" is conceptually important in making a videosequence, which is not supported by any video authoringtools. As (1) in Figure 2 shows, a mixture of written and non-diagrammatic annotations works for analysing what is goingon in the material sequence.
(2) Same object withdifferent annotations(1) Designer’s own annotations
Figure 2: Annotations
Visualising relationships between multipleviewpoints
As shown (2) in Figure 2, a certain part of the materialsequence is annotated in different ways in each rectangle inorder to describe conditions represented by the rectangle, thatis:
speak; zero (with shading); null; black; T (or a T-shaped symbol); meter.
This is a power of multiple viewpoints withwritten annotations.These annotations are explanations of a certain part of a videosequence in terms of each correspondent viewpoint. For example, in terms of "Sound levels", this sketch shows that thesound level will be set to zero at this point of the sequence.The participant also externalises the relationships across theviewpoints in his sketch by using both written anddiagrammatic annotations as shown in Figure 3.Sketching supports designers to think semantic relationshipssuch as "voices leads pics" shown in (1) of Figure 3, as well asrelationships among physical features such as timing betweensounds and pictures.(2) indicates that he visualised the relationships between picture images and his plan on a certain part of the materialsequence by using written and diagrammatic annotations.(3) shows that he was thinking about the relationships acrossthe viewpoints.The relationships that the participant visualised are both physical and semantic. Some authoring tools supportvisualising physical relationships, however, they have fewfunctions to support semantic relationships amongviewpoints of designers. Sketching assists this process.
(1)Relationships between sound and vision(2) Relationships betweenvision and plan(3) Relationships acrossthe viewpoints
Figure 3: Relationships between multiple viewpoints
Sketching also provides a holistic view of time-basedinformation. Implementation of these features of sketching tosoftware will facilitate designers going back and forth betweenconceptual and physical world, and whole and a part, so thatthe process of making a video sequence is supported.
Roles of Software
We investigated the process of making a video sequence withsoftware. The participant was to edit a material video sequencecomposed of a single shot. The editing tool he used wasFinalCut Pro HD which the participant had been using for about five years. The duration was up to the participant(eventually it was 90 minutes). The video editing wasconducted at studio at Creativity & Cognition Studios,University of Technology, Sydney. It was the first time heengaged himself in the piece. That is, the process was theearliest stage of using video-authoring software for the new piece.The process of making a video sequence was recorded bydigital video cameras. Following elements were recorded:
The participant's physical actions during makinga video sequence on the video editing software
The participant's actions on computer displaysAfter authoring a video sequence, the participant was asked toconduct a retrospective report on his authoring process withwatching the recorded video data. We adopted theretrospective report method so that we can excerpt cognitive processes in actual interactions as possible as we can. Therecorded video data was used as a visual aid to minimisememory of the participant
. The participant was alsoasked to report what he thought during editing with watchingthe recorded video data. Following this the participant wasasked to answer a free-form questionnaire via e-mail.
Observing "facts" in a material sequence
The participant reported that he was just looking at the filmclip as follows:[00:01:30]
At this stage, I'm just looking again at the film clip.
So again, still operating on this kind of looking at the image over, the perceptual thing.