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Chem Vocab

Chem Vocab

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Published by Cesal
this is some pretty good vocab for chemistry
this is some pretty good vocab for chemistry

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Published by: Cesal on May 21, 2008
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06/16/2009

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Chapter 5
Dalton’s Atomic Theory
All Elements are composed of tiny indivisible particles calledatoms.
Atoms of the same element areidentical. The atoms of any oneelement are different from thoseof any other element.
Atoms of different elements can physically mix together or canchemically combine with oneanother in simple whole-number ratios to form compounds.
Chemical reactions occur whenatoms are separated, joined, or rearranged. Atoms of oneelement, however, are never changed into atoms of another element as a result of a chemicalreaction.
Atom -Smallest particle of an elementthat retains the properties of thatelement.
Electrons -Negatively chargedsubatomic particles.
Cathode Ray -A glowing beamformed between an +Anode and a – cathode. Travelled from the cathodeto the anode.
Protons -Positively chargedsubatomic particle.
 Neutrons -Subatomic particle with nocharge but w/ a mass nearly equal tothat of a proton. (mass# - atomic#)
 Nucleus -Central core of an atom andcomposed of protons and neutrons.
Atomic Number -Number of protonsin the nucleus of an atom of thatelement.
Mass Number -Total number of  protons and neutrons.
Isotopes -Atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
Atomic Mass Unit (AMU) -1/12
th
themass of a carbon-12 atom.
Atomic Mass -Weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occurringsample of the element.
Periodic Table -An arrangement of theelements according to similarities intheir properties.
Periods -Horizontal rows of the periodictable.
Periodic Law -When the elements arearranged in order of increasing atomicnumber, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties.
Group -Vertical column of elements inthe periodic table.
Representative Elements -Group Aelements. Exhibit a wide range of both physical and chemical properties.
Metals -High electrical conductivity anda high malleability.
Alkali Metals -Group 1A elements.
Alkaline Earth Metals -Group 2Aelements.
Transition Metals -Group B elementsalong w/ inner transition metals.
Inner Transition Metals -Group Belements.
 Non Metals -Generally nonlustrous andthat are generally poor conductors of electricity. Some are gases at roomtemperature.
Halogens -Group 7A Nonmetals,Chlorine and Bromine included.
 Noble Gases -Group 0 non-metals,sometimes called the inert gases becausethey undergo few chemical reactions.
Metalloids -Elements with properties that areintermediate between those of metals andnonmetals.
 
Chapter 6
Molecule -Smallest electricallyneutral unit of a substance that stillhas the properties of the substance.
Molecular Compounds -Compoundscomposed of molecules.
Ions -Forms when atoms or group of atoms loses or gains electrons.
Cation -Any atom or group of atomsthat has a positive charge.
Anion -Atoms or groups of atomsthat have a negative charge.
Ionic Compounds -Compoundscomposed of cations and anions.
Monatomic Ions -ions consisting oonly one atom.
Polyatomic Ions -Ions consisting omore than one atom.
Binary Compounds -Compounds of two elements.
Ternary Compounds -Compoundconsisting of three or more elements.
Chemical Formula -Shows the kindsand numbers of atoms in the smallestrepresentative unit of the substance.
Formula Unit -The lowest wholenumber ratio of ions in thecompound.
Law of Definite Proportions-Themasses of the elements are always inthe same proportions.
Law of Multiple Proportions -Whenever two elements form morethan one compound, the differentmasses of one element that combinewith the same mass of the other element are in the ratio of smallwhole number.
Molecular Formula - Shows kindsand numbers of atoms present in amolecule of a compound.
Chapter 7
Mole (mol) -Representsrepresentative particles of thatsubstance.
Avogadro’s Number -Experimentallydetermined number 
6.02*1023
, inhonor of Amedeo Avogadro diQuaregna.
Representative Particle -Species present in a substance: usuallyatoms, molecules, or formula units(ions).
Gram Atomic Mass (GAM) -Atomicmass of an element expressed ingrams.
Gram Molecular Mass (GMM) -Anymolecular compound is the mass of 1mol of that compound.
Gram Formula Mass (GFM) -Equalsthe formula mass expressed ingrams.
Molar Mass -The mass (in grams) of one mole of the substance.
Standard temperature & Pressure(STP)-Standard temperature is 0degrees Celsius. Standard pressure is101.3 kPa, or 1 atmosphere (atm). AtSTP, 1 mol of any gas occupies avolume of 22.4 L
Percent Composition - Percent bymass of each element in acompound.
Empirical Formula-Gives the lowestwhole-number ratio of the atoms of the elements in a compound.
Chapter 8
Chemical Equation -
Skeleton equation -Chemicalequation that does not indicate the

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