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COA two marks

COA two marks

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Published by karthikbabube

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Published by: karthikbabube on Apr 23, 2010
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.Write the basic functional units of computer ?
The basic functional units of a computer are input unit ,output unit ,memory unit , ALU unit and controlunit.
2.Define ALU. What are the various operations performed in ALU?
ALU is a part of computer that performs all arithmetic and logical operations. It is a component of central processing unit.
Arithmetic operations:
Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, increment and decrement;
Logical operations:
AND, OR, XOR, NOT, compare, shift, rotate.-
3. Compute the effective CPI for a processor, for the following instruction mix:Instruction type Clock cycle count Frequency
ALU operations 1 40Loads 3 20Stores 2 10Branches taken 3 20Branches untaken 2 10An enhancement to the processor is made by adding a branch prediction unit. This decreases the number of cycles taken to execute a branch from 3 to 2. What is the improvement in performance ?Speed up =execution time old /execution time newExecution time old or CPU time=I.C.* Clk Cycles * cycle timeExecution time old =[40*1+20*3+10*2+20*2+10*2]Cycles*cycles timeThe enhancement decreases the number of cycles taken for branch instruction from 3 to 2.Execution time new =[40*1+20*3+10*2+20*2+10*2]=180 cycles *cycle timeSpeed up = (200*cycles time)/(180 cycles *cycles time) =1.1
4.What is a bus? What are the different buses in a CPU?
A group of lines that serve as a connecting path for several devices is called bus .The different buses in a CPU are1] Data bus2] Address bus3] Control bus
5. Why data bus is bidirectional and address bus is unidirectional in most microprocessor?Data bus:
 The data bus consists of 8, 16, 32 or more parallel signal lines. These lines are used to send data tomemory and output ports ,and to receive data from memory and input port. Therefore, data bus lines are bidirectional. This means that CPU can read data on these lines from memory or from a port, as well as send dataout of these lines to a memory location or to a port. The data bus is connected in parallel to all peripherals. The
communication between peripherals and CPU is activated by giving output enable pulse to the peripherals. Outputsof peripherals are floated when they are not in use.
Address bus:
 It is a unidirectional bus. The address bus consists of 16, 20, 24 or more parallel signal lines. On these lines theCPU sends out the address of the memory location or IO port that is to be written to or read from. Here, thecommunication is one-way, the address is send from CPU to memory and IO port and hence these lines areunidirectional.
6. What is meant by stored program concepts? Discuss.
Stored program concept is an idea of storing the program and data in the memory.
7. Define multiprogramming?
Multiprogramming is a technique in several jobs are in main memory at once and the processor is switchedfrom job as needed to keep several jobs advancing while keeping the peripheral devices in use.
8. Define multiprocessing?
Multiprocessing is the ability of an operating system to support more than one process at the same time.
9. Define time sharing?
Time sharing is the process in which the system is designed to allow many users to use the CPU simultaneously.
10. What is a super computer?
A computer with high computational speed, very large memory and expansive parallel structured hardware isknown as a super computer.EX: CDC 6600
11. What is meant by VLSI technology?
VLSI is the abbreviation for Very Large Scale Integration. In this technology millions of transistors are put inside a single chip as tiny components. The VLSI chips do the function of millions of transistors. These areused to implement parallel algorithms directly in hardware.
12. What are the characteristics of Von Neumann computers?
* The program can data were represented in digital form and stored in the memory.* The architecture has 5 basic parts -> the memory, the ALU, Control Unit, Input unit and output unit.* It uses binary arithmetic.* There were only fixed point arithmetic and no floating point arithmetic.* used a special general purpose register called Accumulator.* The first general purpose machine.
13. Define parallel processing.
It is an efficient form of information processing to exploit the concurrent events in the computing process.
14. Define pipelining.
Pipelining is technique of decomposing a sequential process in to number of sub operations and each of thesesub operations are carried out independently in dedicated segments concurrently.
15. Mention some applications of parallel processing.
* In simulation and Modeling -> weather forecasting, oceanography, socio economy* Engineering design and automation -> Aerodynamics, finite element analysis AI* Medical, military and research -> computer assisted topography genetic engineering etc* Energy resource explosion.
16. In what way hardware and software are equivalent? Not equivalent.
Software and hardware are logically equivalent. Any operation done by software could be done by hardware.Any instruction executed by hardware can be simulated by software. They are not equivalent in the sense that,minimum hardware required to execute software cannot be simulated by software. In other words with out thehardware software cannot function, whereas with NIL software the hardware function perfectly.
17. Distinguish between hardware and firmware.
The hardware deals with all electronics and electrical components of a computer.EX: IC’s, diodes, resistors, power supplies, tapes etcThe firmware is embedded software of certain electronic circuits.EX: ROMBIOS.
18. What is an operating system?
A System software which acts as an interface between the user and the machine.
19. Define system throughput.
It is defined as the number of instructions executed per unit time (sec).
20. What is mainframe computer?
It is the large computer system containing thousands of IC’s. It is a room- sized machine placed inspecial computer centers and not directly accessible to average users. It serves as a central computing facilityfor an organization such as university, factory or bank.
21. What is mini computer?
Minicomputers are small and low cost computers are characterized by
Short word size i.e. CPU word sizes of 8 or 16 bits.
Limited hardware and software facilities.
Physically smaller in size.
2. Define micro computer.
Microcomputer is a smaller, slower and cheaper computer packing all the electronics of the computer in to a handful of IC’s, including the CPU and memory and IO chips.
25. What is workstation?
The more powerful desktop computers intended for scientific and engineering applications arereferred as workstations.
26. Write the features of the third generation computers?
Pipelining concept was introduced.
Cache memory concept was introduced to close the speed gap between the CPU and main memory
Multiprogramming was introduced.
Time sharing concept was introduced.
Virtual memory concept was introduced to close the speed gap between the CPU and main memory.
Multiprogramming was introduced.
Time sharing concept was introduced.
Virtual memory concept was introduced.
Ex: IBM 360/370, CDC 6600/7600, Texas Instrument’s ASC (Advanced Scientific Computer), DigitalEquipment’s PDP-8.

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