communication between peripherals and CPU is activated by giving output enable pulse to the peripherals. Outputsof peripherals are floated when they are not in use.
It is a unidirectional bus. The address bus consists of 16, 20, 24 or more parallel signal lines. On these lines theCPU sends out the address of the memory location or IO port that is to be written to or read from. Here, thecommunication is one-way, the address is send from CPU to memory and IO port and hence these lines areunidirectional.
6. What is meant by stored program concepts? Discuss.
Stored program concept is an idea of storing the program and data in the memory.
7. Define multiprogramming?
Multiprogramming is a technique in several jobs are in main memory at once and the processor is switchedfrom job as needed to keep several jobs advancing while keeping the peripheral devices in use.
8. Define multiprocessing?
Multiprocessing is the ability of an operating system to support more than one process at the same time.
9. Define time sharing?
Time sharing is the process in which the system is designed to allow many users to use the CPU simultaneously.
10. What is a super computer?
A computer with high computational speed, very large memory and expansive parallel structured hardware isknown as a super computer.EX: CDC 6600
11. What is meant by VLSI technology?
VLSI is the abbreviation for Very Large Scale Integration. In this technology millions of transistors are put inside a single chip as tiny components. The VLSI chips do the function of millions of transistors. These areused to implement parallel algorithms directly in hardware.
12. What are the characteristics of Von Neumann computers?
* The program can data were represented in digital form and stored in the memory.* The architecture has 5 basic parts -> the memory, the ALU, Control Unit, Input unit and output unit.* It uses binary arithmetic.* There were only fixed point arithmetic and no floating point arithmetic.* used a special general purpose register called Accumulator.* The first general purpose machine.
13. Define parallel processing.
It is an efficient form of information processing to exploit the concurrent events in the computing process.
14. Define pipelining.
Pipelining is technique of decomposing a sequential process in to number of sub operations and each of thesesub operations are carried out independently in dedicated segments concurrently.
15. Mention some applications of parallel processing.
* In simulation and Modeling -> weather forecasting, oceanography, socio economy* Engineering design and automation -> Aerodynamics, finite element analysis AI* Medical, military and research -> computer assisted topography genetic engineering etc* Energy resource explosion.
16. In what way hardware and software are equivalent? Not equivalent.
Software and hardware are logically equivalent. Any operation done by software could be done by hardware.Any instruction executed by hardware can be simulated by software. They are not equivalent in the sense that,minimum hardware required to execute software cannot be simulated by software. In other words with out thehardware software cannot function, whereas with NIL software the hardware function perfectly.
17. Distinguish between hardware and firmware.