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St Gregory Palamas and the Tradition of the Fathers

St Gregory Palamas and the Tradition of the Fathers

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Archpriest Georges Florovsky (1893-1979)
St. Gregory Palamas andthe Tradition of the Fathers
*
Chapter VII of 
The Collected Works of Georges Florovsky,Vol. I, Bible, Church, Tradition: An Eastern Orthodox View 
(Vaduz, Europa: Buchervertriebsanstalt, 1987), pp. 105-120.Quotations in Greek have here been transliterated.
Following the Fathers
F
OLLOWING THE HOLY FATHERS
”... It was usual in the Ancient Church to introducedoctrinal statements by phrases like this. The Decree of Chalcedon opens precisely withthese very words. The Seventh Ecumenical Council introduces its decision concerningthe Holy Icons in a more elaborate way:
“Following the Divinely inspired teaching of theHoly Fathers and the Tradition of the Catholic Church.” 
The
didaskalia
of the Fathers isthe formal and normative term of reference.Now, this was much more than just an “appeal to antiquity.” Indeed, the Church alwaysstresses the permanence of her faith through the ages, from the very beginning. Thisidentity, since the Apostolic times, is the most conspicuous sign and token of right faith-always the same. Yet, “antiquity” by itself is not an adequate proof of the true faith.Moreover, the Christian message was obviously a striking novelty” for the “ancientworld,” and, indeed, a call to radical “renovation.” The “Old” has passed away, andeverything has been “made New.” On the other hand, heresies could also appeal to thepast and invoke the authority of 
106 
certain “traditions.” In fact, heresies were often lingering in the past.
1
Archaic formulascan often be dangerously misleading. Vincent of Lerins himself was fully aware of this 
* “St Gregory Palamas and the Tradition of the Fathers” appeared in
The Greek Orthodox Theological Review 
(Winter, 1959-1960; V, 2.)
1
It has been recently suggested that Gnostics were actually the first to invoke formally the authority of an“Apostolic Tradition” and that it was their usage which moved St. Irenaeus to elaborate his own
 
danger. It would suffice to quote this pathetic passage of his: “And now, what anamazing reversal of the situation I the authors of the same opinion are adjudged to becatholics, but the followers-heretics; the masters are absolved, the disciples arecondemned; the writers of the books will be children of the Kingdom, their followers willgo to Gehenna” (
Commonitorium,
cap. 6). Vincent had in mind, of course, St. Cyprianand the Donatists. St. Cyprian himself faced the same situation. “Antiquity” as such mayhappen to be Just an inveterate prejudice:
nam antiquitas sine veritate vetustas errorisest 
(
Epist.
74). It is to say—”old customs” as such do not guarantee the truth. “Truth” isnot just a “habit.”The true tradition is only the tradition of truth,
traditio veritatis.
This tradition, according of St. Irenaeus, is grounded in, and secured by, that
charisma veritatis certum
[securecharisma of truth], which has been “deposited” in the Church from the very beginningand has been preserved by the uninterrupted succession of episcopal ministry.“Tradition” in the Church is not a continuity of human memory, or a permanence of ritesand habits. It is a living tradition—
depositum
 
 juvenescens,
in the phrase of St. Irenaeus.Accordingly, it cannot be counted
inter mortuas regulas
[among dead rules]. Ultimately,tradition is a continuity of the abiding presence of the Holy Spirit in the Church, acontinuity of Divine guidance and illumination. The Church is not bound by the “letter.”Rather, she is constantly moved forth by the “Spirit.” The same Spirit, the Spirit of Truth,which “spake through the Prophets,” which guided the Apostles, is still continuouslyguiding the Church into the fuller comprehension and understanding of the Divine truth,from glory to glory.
“Following the Holy Fathers”…
This is not a reference to some abstract tradition, informulas and propositions. It is primarily an appeal to holy witnesses. Indeed, we appealto the Apostles, and not just to an abstract “Apostolicity.” In the similar manner do werefer to the Fathers. The witness
107 
of the Fathers belongs, intrinsically and integrally, to the very structure of Orthodoxbelief. The Church is equally committed to the
kerygma
of the Apostles and to the
dogma
of the Fathers. We may quote at this point an admirable ancient hymn (probably,from the pen of St. Romanus the Melode). “Preserving the
kerygma
of the Apostles andthe dogmas of the Fathers, the Church has sealed the one faith and wearing the tunic of  
conception of Tradition. D. B. Reynders, “Paradosis: Le proges de l’idee de tradition jusqu’a SaintIrenee,” in
Recherches de Theologie ancienne et medievale,
V (1933), Louvain, 155-191. In any case,Gnostics used to refer to “tradition.”
 
truth she shapes rightly the brocade of heavenly theology and praises the great mysteryof piety.”
2
The Mind of the Fathers
The Church is “Apostolic” indeed. But the Church is also “Patristic.” She is intrinsically“the Church of the Fathers.” These two “notes” cannot be separated. Only by being“Patristic” is the Church truly “Apostolic.” The witness of the Fathers is much more thansimply a historic feature, a voice from the past. Let us quote another hymn from theoffice of the Three Hierarchs. “By the word of knowledge you have composed thedogmas which the fisher men have established first in simple words, in knowledge by thepower of the Spirit, for thus our simple piety had to acquire composition.” There are, as itwere, two basic stages in the proclamation of the Christian faith. “Our simple faith had toacquire composition.” There was an inner urge, an inner logic, an internal necessity, inthis transition from
kerygma
to
dogma
.
 
Indeed, the teaching of the Fathers, and thedogma of the Church, are still the same “simple message” which has been oncedelivered and deposited, once for ever, by the Apostles. But now it is, as it were,properly and fully articulated. The Apostolic preaching is kept alive in the Church, notonly merely preserved. In this sense, the teaching of the Fathers is a permanentcategory of Christian existence, a constant and ultimate measure and criterion of rightfaith. Fathers are not only witnesses of the old faith,
testes antiquitatis.
They are rather witnesses of the true faith,
testes veritatis.
“The mind of the Fathers” is an intrinsic termof reference in Orthodox theology, no less than the word of Holy Scripture, and indeednever separated from it.
108 
As it has been well said, “the Catholic Church of all ages is not merely a daughter of theChurch of the Fathers—
she is and remains the Church of the Fathers.” 
3
The Existential Character of Patristic Theology
The main distinctive mark of Patristic theology was its existential” character, if we mayuse this current neologism. The Fathers theologized, as St. Gregory of Nazianzus put it,“in the manner of the Apostles, not in that of Aristotle—
alieutikôs
,
ouk aristotelikôs
([lit.“as fishermen, not as Aristotle”—
ed.
]
Hom
. 23. 12). Their theology was still a“message,” a
kerygma.
Their theology was still “kerygmatic theology,” even if it wasoften logically arranged and supplied with intellectual arguments. The ultimate reference 
2
Paul Maas, ed..
Fruhbyzantinische Kirchenpoesie,
I (Bonn, 1910), p. 24.
3
Louis Bouyer, “Le renouveau des etudes patristiques,” in
La Vie Intellectuelle,
XV (Fevrier 1947), 18.

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