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Basic electronics 1c 2006

Basic electronics 1c 2006

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Published by: umamaheshcool on Apr 24, 2010
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05/25/2010

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Carrier Action
From a device point of view nothing interesting happens under equilibrium conditions (i.e. we can’t get anynet current flow). Only when a semiconductor is perturbed, giving rise to carrier action can currents flowwithin and external to the semiconductor.Under normal operating conditions the 3 primary types of carrier action that occur within a semiconductor are drift, diffusion and recombination-generation (R-G). We will look at each of these individually.
Drift
Drift is charged particle motion in response to an applied electric field. When an electric field is appliedacross a semiconductor as shown belowthe resulting force on the charge carriers accelerates the positively charged holes IN THE SAMEDIRECTION AS THE electric field and e- in the opposite direction (as long as there are available energystates in the CB or VB). Because of frequent collisions of these particles with lattice atoms and ionizedimpurity atoms, this carrier acceleration is constantly interrupted (called scattering events). Result is carrier motion in the general direction with / against the electric field but not in a straight, direct path/
EE 329 Introduction to Electronics30
 
The drift motion of each particle is complicated but we can simplify things by only considering macroscopicquantities reflecting the average motion of the carriers. If we average the motion of all the e- or h+ at anygiven time, we find that the resultant motion of each carrier type can be described in terms of a constant driftvelocity (v
d
). Now we simplify things by assuming that all the carriers move in the appropriate directionwith respect to the electric field at a CONSTANT velocity. Remember that this drift velocity is INADDITION to the random thermal motion of the carriers which has no net directional flow. The thermallyrelated random carrier velocity at room temperature is about 1 / 1000 speed of light, but since they have nonet directional motion, this motion can be ignored when calculating device current transport. Now we develop the drift current equations; first define current as the charge per unit time crossing anygiven plane oriented normal to the direction of current flow as shown above. Here we show a hole movingin the direction of the electric field. We then define (v
d
* t) which has units of distance and say that all holesthis far from our plane of observation will cross the plane in time t. If we multiply this by the area of the plane we end up with all the holes in this volume that will cross the plane in time t. Add how much charge
EE 329 Introduction to Electronics31
 
crosses this plane by further multiplying by qp and dividing by time to yield charge crossing the plane per unit time;Eq. 3.1
 Aqpv I 
drift  p
=
|
which is the hole drift current. Since current is usually considered a scalar quantity we introduce a related parameter called the current density (J) which is the drift current divided by the area of the plane A and weend up withMobility is an important device parameter because it plays a crucial role in carrier transport. It has strangeunits cm
2
/ V-sec and its value is dependent on several parameters, especially the amount of doping present.
EE 329 Introduction to Electronics32

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