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Basic electronics 3a 2006

Basic electronics 3a 2006

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Published by: umamaheshcool on Apr 24, 2010
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08/29/2010

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Ch. 3.0 The Bipolar Junction Transistor
In the last chapter, we saw that the rectifying current voltage characteristics of the diode are useful in electronicswitching and wave shaping circuits. However, diodes are not capable of amplifying currents or voltages. Oneof the electronic devices that is capable of current and voltage amplification, or gain, in conjunction with other circuit elements, is the transistor, which is a three-terminal device. The development of the silicon transistor byBardeen, Brattain. and Schockley at Bell Telephone Laboratories in the late 1940s started the first electronicsrevolution of the 1950s and 1960s. This invention led to the development of the first integrated circuit in 1958and to the operational transistor amplifier (op-amp), which is one of the most widely used electronic circuits. The bipolar transistor, which is introduced in this chapter, is the first of two major types of transistors. Thesecond type of transistor, the field-effect transistor FET). is introduced in Chapter 5 and has led to the secondelectronics revolution in the 1970s and 1980s. These two device types are the basis of modern daymicroelectronics. Each device type is equally important and each has particular advantages for specificapplications.We begin this chapter with a look at the physical structure and operation of the bipolar transistor. The chapter deals mainly with the transistor characteristics and with the dc analysis and design of bipolar circuits. Wecontinue to use the piecewise linear approximation techniques, developed for the diode, in the bipolar transistor calculations. We discuss how the transistor can be used in switch, digital, and linear amplifier applications.Much of the material in this chapter may appear to be skewed toward discrete transistor biasing. However, the principal goal of the chapter is to ensure that readers become familiar with transistor characteristics and areable to quickly analyze and design the dc response of bipolar transistor circuits. Integrated circuit biasing isdiscussed toward the end of the chapter and is emphasized to a greater extent in the later chapters.
3.1 BASIC BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR 
The bipolar junction transistor (BJT) has three separately doped regions and contains two pn junctions. Asingle pn junction has two modes of operation; forward bias and reverse bias. The bipolar transistor, with two pn junctions therefore has four possible modes of operation, depending on the bias condition of each pn junction, which is one reason for the versatility of the device. With three separately doped regions, the bipolar transistor is a three-terminal device. The basic transistor principle is that the voltage between two terminalscontrols the current through the third terminal.
EE 329 Introduction to Electronics100
 
Our discussion of the bipolar transistor starts with a description of the basic transistor structure and a qualitativedescription of its operation. To describe its operation, we use the pn junction concepts presented in Chapter 1.However, the two pn junctions are sufficiently close together to be called interacting pn junctions. Theoperation of the transistor is therefore totally different from that of two back-to-back diodes.Current in the transistor is due to the flow of both electrons and holes, hence the name bipolar. Our discussioncovers the relationship between the three terminal currents. In addition, we present the circuit symbols andconventions used in bipolar circuits, the bipolar transistor current-voltage characteristics, and finally, somenonideal current voltage characteristics.
3.1.1 Transistor StructuresFigure 3.1
shows simplified block diagrams of the basic structure of the two types of bipolar transistor: npnand pnp. The three regions and their terminal connections arc called the emitter, base, and collector. Theoperation of the device depends on the two pn junctions being in close proximity therefore the width of the base must be very narrow, normally in the range of tenths of a micrometers.The actual structure of the bipolar transistor is considerably more complicated than in the previous figures anda cross-sectional example is shown in Figure 3.2.One important point is that the device is not symmetrical electrically. This asymmetry occurs because thegeometries of the emitter and collector regions are not the same, and the impurity doping concentrations in thethree regions are substantially different. For example, the impurity doping concentrations in the emitter, base,and collector may be on the order of 10
19
, 10
17
, and l0
15
cm
-3
respectively. Therefore, even though both ends are either p-type or n-type on a given transistor, switching
EE 329 Introduction to Electronics101
 
the two ends makes the device act in drastically different ways.
3.1.2 npn Transistor: Forward-Active Mode Operation
Since the transistor has two pn junctions, four possible bias combinations may be applied to the device,depending on whether a forward or reverse bias is applied to each junction. For example, if the transistor isused as an amplifying device, the base-emitter (BE) junction is forward biased and the base-collector (BC) junction is reverse biased, in a configuration called the forward-active operating mode, or simply the activeregion.
Transistor Currents
Figure 3.3 shows an idealized npn bipolar transistor biased in the forward-active mode.Since the BE junction is forward biased, electrons from the emitter are injected across the BE junction into the base, creating an excess minority carrier concentration in the base. Since the BC junction is reverse biased, theelectron concentration at the edge of that junction is approximately zero.The electron concentration in the base region is shown in Figure 3.4.
EE 329 Introduction to Electronics102

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