Ch. 3.0 The Bipolar Junction Transistor
In the last chapter, we saw that the rectifying current voltage characteristics of the diode are useful in electronicswitching and wave shaping circuits. However, diodes are not capable of amplifying currents or voltages. Oneof the electronic devices that is capable of current and voltage amplification, or gain, in conjunction with other circuit elements, is the transistor, which is a three-terminal device. The development of the silicon transistor byBardeen, Brattain. and Schockley at Bell Telephone Laboratories in the late 1940s started the first electronicsrevolution of the 1950s and 1960s. This invention led to the development of the first integrated circuit in 1958and to the operational transistor amplifier (op-amp), which is one of the most widely used electronic circuits. The bipolar transistor, which is introduced in this chapter, is the first of two major types of transistors. Thesecond type of transistor, the field-effect transistor FET). is introduced in Chapter 5 and has led to the secondelectronics revolution in the 1970s and 1980s. These two device types are the basis of modern daymicroelectronics. Each device type is equally important and each has particular advantages for specificapplications.We begin this chapter with a look at the physical structure and operation of the bipolar transistor. The chapter deals mainly with the transistor characteristics and with the dc analysis and design of bipolar circuits. Wecontinue to use the piecewise linear approximation techniques, developed for the diode, in the bipolar transistor calculations. We discuss how the transistor can be used in switch, digital, and linear amplifier applications.Much of the material in this chapter may appear to be skewed toward discrete transistor biasing. However, the principal goal of the chapter is to ensure that readers become familiar with transistor characteristics and areable to quickly analyze and design the dc response of bipolar transistor circuits. Integrated circuit biasing isdiscussed toward the end of the chapter and is emphasized to a greater extent in the later chapters.
3.1 BASIC BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR
The bipolar junction transistor (BJT) has three separately doped regions and contains two pn junctions. Asingle pn junction has two modes of operation; forward bias and reverse bias. The bipolar transistor, with two pn junctions therefore has four possible modes of operation, depending on the bias condition of each pn junction, which is one reason for the versatility of the device. With three separately doped regions, the bipolar transistor is a three-terminal device. The basic transistor principle is that the voltage between two terminalscontrols the current through the third terminal.
EE 329 Introduction to Electronics100