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Basic electronics 3b 2006

Basic electronics 3b 2006

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Published by: umamaheshcool on Apr 24, 2010
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EE 329 Introduction to Electronics 126
The book goes over several more examples that you should go over pp. 123 ± 130.3.3 BASIC TRANSISTOR APPLICATIONS
Transistors can be used to switch currents, voltages, and power; perform digital logic functions; and amplifytime-varying signals. In this section, we consider the switching properties of the bipolar transistor, analyze asimple transistor digital logic circuit, and then show how the bipolar transistor is used to amplify time-varyingsignals.
3.3.1 Switch
Figure 3.42 shows a bipolar circuit called an inverter, in which the transistor in the circuit is switched betweencutoff and saturation.The load, for example, could be a motor, a light-emitting diode, or some other electrical device. If v
I
< V
BE
(on), then i
B
= i
C
= 0 and the transistor is cut off. Since i
C
= 0, the voltage drop across R 
C
is zero, so theoutput voltage is v
O
= V
CC
. Also, since the currents in the transistor are zero, the power dissipation in thetransistor is also zero. If the load were a motor, the motor would be off with zero current. Likewise, if the loadwere a light-emitting diode, the light output would be zero with zero current.
 
EE 329 Introduction to Electronics 127
If we let v
I
= V
CC
, and if the ratio of R 
B
to
C
, where R 
C
is the effective resistance of the load, is less than ,then the transistor is usually driven into saturation, which means thatIn this case, a collector current is induced that would turn on the motor or the LED, depending on the type of load.Equation (3.30) assumes that the BE voltage can be approximated by the turn-on voltage. This approximationwill be modified slightly when we discuss bipolar digital logic circuits.Design Pointer: Motors tend to be inductive, so that during start-up and shutdown a relatively large di/dtvoltage could be induced in the circuit. This voltage, especially during shutdown, could cause the transistor togo into breakdown and be damaged.When a transistor is biased in saturation, the relationship between the collector and base currents is no longer linear. Consequently, this mode of operation cannot he used for linear amplifiers. On the other hand,switching a transistor between cutoff and saturation produces the greatest change in output voltage, which isespecially useful in digital logic circuits, as we will see in the next section.
3.3.2 Digital Logic
In the simple transistor inverter circuit shown in Figure 3.43(a), if the input is approximately zero volts, thetransistor is in cutoff and the output is high and equal to V
CC
. If. on the other hand, the input is high and equalto V
CC
, the transistor is driven into saturation, and the output is low and equal to V
CE
(sat).
 
EE 329 Introduction to Electronics 128
 Now consider the case when a second transistor is connected in parallel, as shown in Figure 3.43(b) above.When the two inputs are zero, both transistors are cutoff and V
O
= 5 V. When V
1
= 5 V and V
2
= 0, Q
1
can bedriven into saturation, while Q
2
remains in cutoff. With Q
1
in saturation, the output voltage isV
O
= V
CE
(sat) = 0.2 V. If we reverse the input voltages, we get the same output voltage. If both inputs are high,then both transistors can be driven into saturation, and the output is again the same as the previous two cases.In a positive logic system (i.e. the larger voltage represents a logical 1), this circuit is a NOR gate.
3.3.3 Amplifier
The bipolar inverter circuit shown in Figure 3.43(a) can also be used as an amplifier. We will initially developthe voltage-transfer characteristics of a specific inverter circuit and then superimpose a time-varying signal ona dc input voltage.
Example 3.12
Objective: Determine the de voltage transfer characteristics and then theamplification factor of the circuit shown in Figure 3.44(a) below. Assume the transistor parameters are:
F
= 100, V
A
=
 g
, V
BE
.(on) = 0.7 V, and V
CE
(sat) = 0.2V.

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