In the last two chapters, we looked at BJT circuits. In this chapter, we introduce the second major type of transistor, thefield-effect transistor (FET). There are two general classes of FETs: the metal-oxide-semiconductor FET (MOSFET) andthe junction FET (JFET). The MOSFET has led to the second electronics revolution in the 1970s and 1980s, in which themicroprocessor has made possible powerful desktop computers and sophisticated hand-held calculators. The MOSFET can be made very small so high-density VLSI circuits and high-density memories are possible.We begin the chapter with a look at the physical structure and operation of the MOSFET. The current - voltagecharacteristics of the device are developed and then the dc analysis and design of MOSFET circuits are considered. Wewill see how the MOSFET can be used in place of resistors in a circuit.In JFETs, the junction may be a pn junction, which forms a pn JFET. or a Schottky barrier junction, which forms ametal-semiconductor FET, or MESFET. MESFETs are used in very high speed or high-frequency applications, such asmicrowave amplifiers.Although the emphasis of this chapter is on dc circuits, we discuss how the FET can be used in switch, digital, and linear amplifier applications. A major goal of this chapter is to enable the reader to become very familiar and comfortablewith the MOSFET properties and to be able to quickly analyze and design the dc response of FET circuits.
5.1 MOS FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTOR
The MOSFET compared to a BJT, can be made very small. Since digital circuits can be designed using only MOSFETswith essentially no resistors or diodes, high-density VLSI circuits, including microprocessors and memories, can be fabricated.In a MOSFET the current is controlled by an electric field applied applied perpendicular to both the semiconductor surface and to the direction of current. The phenomenon used to modulate the conductance of a semiconductor,or control the current in a semiconductor, by applying an electric field perpendicular to the surface is calledthe field effect. Again, the basic transistor principle is that the voltage between two terminals controls thecurrent through the third terminal.In the following two sections, we will discuss, the various types of MOSFETs, develop their I - V characteristics,and then consider the dc biasing of various MOSFET circuit configurations.
5.1.1 Two-Terminal MOS Structure
The heart of the MOSFET is the metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor shown in Figure 5.1.
EE 329 Introduction to Electronics226