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Structure and Properties of Cotton Fiber: A Literature Review

Structure and Properties of Cotton Fiber: A Literature Review

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Details of cotton fiber, its structure, properties, growth
Details of cotton fiber, its structure, properties, growth

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Published by: Dr Muhammad Mushtaq Mangat on Apr 24, 2010
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Structure and Properties of Cotton Fiber:A literature Review
Presented to:Dr. Prof. Jiri Militkyby
Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmed Mangat
Dec 14, 2009
 
Structure and Properties of Cotton Fiber: A literature Review1.1Introduction
Cotton fiber is one of the oldest natural fiber which is much familiar tohuman beings and widely used for numerous purposes. It is predominantlycomposed of cellulose, along with hemicellulose
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. There are certain non-cellulosic matters also attached and present in the cotton fiber. Such assugars, starch, protein and some inorganic matters. Besides these matter lignin is found also in the cotton fiber, which is a complex organiccompound. It woks as a binding force among various compounds and makesthe whole structure firm and steady (Orwell et al. 2000).It is work out that cotton was growing in ancient times and it was cultivatedin India in 3000 BC (Militky, 2009). A drastic and incredible increase in the production of cotton is attributed to the invention of textile machinery anddevelopment of different cotton varieties, along with various chemicals to bring down the impact of pests and insects. Also availability of syntheticfertilizer accrued production by improving the fertility of the soil. In currenttimes, production of cotton fiber is gauged 14-18 Million Tons per annum(Militky, 2009).Cotton has a number of distinguishable characteristics and is graded as afiber which is preferred by many people. Before the invention of man-madefibers, cotton was having the leading share. Although, there is a decreasingtrend in the consumption of natural fibers, but still cotton has 40% share intotal consumption of natural and man-made fibers.This review is confined to describe the work of scientists and scholars aboutthe structure of cotton fiber along with chemical and physical properties of 
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 A class of substances that occur as constituents of the cell walls of plantsand are polysaccharides of simpler structure than cellulose (dictionary).
 
cotton and its application in real life. However, a small portion of the reviewhas been allocated to discourse the history and growth process of cotton.What is more, this literature survey aims to collect work of different peopleat one point so that reader could grasp the elementary and interested factsabout cotton fiber.
1.2History of Cotton Fiber
Fiber refers to a fibrous material which is found in natural and man-madeform. This term is used widely for a wide variety of fibers (Fritz, 2008).Hearle (2008) quoted the definition of fiber coined by The Textile Institute.It says that, “Fibers as units of matter characterized by flexibility, fineness,and high ratio of length to width”. There are many studies conducted toestimate the time when human being first time used cotton fiber. Literature provides many evidences about the use of cotton and to some extent agreedtime is 3000 BC. Generally it is believed that history of cotton is as old asthe history of human being. Nevertheless, many more fibers occurringnaturally are also in use since centuries. However, cotton has a distinctionamong fibers due to numerous reasons. Particularly, its softness, absorbency,luster, strength and wearing comfort have contributed a lot to make it mostliked and used fibers since ancient times. Even, today cotton has 40%apportion in total fiber consumption in the world (Hsieh, 2007).Cotton growing started in several parts of the world. Literature providesevidence that Neil Valley, India and Peru are some of the areas, where people were cultivating cotton in ancient times (Myers, 1999). It is manifestfrom the fiber consumption pattern of the world, that cotton share has adownward trend. It is mainly due to the availability of synthetic and man-made fibers having many distinct qualities. Myers (1999) argues that cottonis more primal for economies of developing countries as compared todeveloped countries. Developed countries are more in man-made fibers ascompared to under developing countries due to level of technology andvolume of capital required for man-made fibers. Whereas, cotton cultivation
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