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No. Of Credits: 2Book ID: BT00 36Q.1Define:
Batch Systems
: Batch systems allowed automatic job sequencing by a resident operating systemand greatly improved the overall utilization of the computer. The computer no longer had to waitfor human operation. CPU utilization was still low, however, because of the slow speed of the I/Odevices relative to that of the CPU. Off-line operation of slow devices provides a means to usemultiple reader-to-tape and tape-to-printer systems for one CPU. Spooling allows the CPU tooverlap the input of one job with the computation and output of other jobs.(b)
: To improve the overall performance of the system, developers introducedthe concept of multiprogramming. With multiprogramming, several jobs are kept in memory at onetime; the CPU is switched back and forth among them to increase CPU utilization and to decreasethe total time needed to execute the jobs.(c)
Time sharing systems
: Time- shared operating systems allow many users to use a computer system interactively at the same time. Time- sharing systems were developed to provide interactiveuse of computer system at a reasonable cost. A time- shared operating system uses CPUscheduling and multiprogramming to provide each user with a small portion of a time- sharedcomputer.(d)
Parallel Processing
: Parallel systems have more than one CPU in close communications; theCPUs share the computer bus, and sometimes share memory and peripheral devices. Such systemscan provide increased throughput and enhanced reliability.(e)
Distributed Systems
: A distributed system is a collection of processors that do not share memoryof a clock. Instead, each processor has its own local memory, and the processors communicatewith one another through various communication lines, such as high speed buses or telephonelines. A distributed system provides the user with access to the various resources located at remotesites. There is a variety of reasons for building distributed systems, the major ones being these:
Resource sharing
: If a number of different sites are connected to one another, then a user atone site may be able to use the resources available at another.
Computation speedup
: If a particular computation can be partitioned into a number of subcomputations that can run concurrently, then a distributed system may allow us to distributethe computation among the various sites- to run that computation concurrently.
: If one site fails in a distributed system, the remaining sites can potentiallycontinue operating.
: There are many instances in which programs need to exchange data withone another on one system.(f)
Real Time Systems
: A hard real- time system is often used as a control device in a dedicatedapplication. A hard real- time operating system has well- defined, fixed time constraints.Processing must be done within the defined constraints, or the system will fail. Soft real- timesystems have less stringent timing constraints, and do not support deadline scheduling.
.2Define Process. With a Block diagram explain various states a process resides in.
Ans.A process is a program in execution. A process is more than the program code. It also includes thecurrent activity, as represented by the value the program counter and contents of the processor’sregisters. The execution of a process in progress in a sequential fashion. That is, at any time, atmost one instruction is executed on behalf of the process.
Process State
: As a process executes, it changes state. The state of a process is defined in part bythe current activity of that process. Each process may be in one of the following states:
The process is being created.
When a process is executing, then it is called in running state.
when a process is executing and other processes are waiting for execution, that processes are called in waiting state.
when a process executes and after execution it waits for an input from the user thenit is called in ready state.
when a process finished its execution, it is called terminated.Q.3Write Notes on:
Context switching mechanism
: A
context switch
is the computing process of storing andrestoring the state (context) of a CPU such that multiple processes can share a single CPUresource. The context switch is an essential feature of a multitasking operating system. Contextswitches are usually computationally intensive and much of the design of operating systems is tooptimize the use of context switches. A context switch can mean a register context switch, a task context switch, a thread context switch, or a process context switch. What constitutes the contextis determined by the processor and the operating system. Switching the CPU to another processrequires saving the state of the old process loading the saved state for the new process. This task is known as context switch. Context- switch time is pure overhead, because the system doesuseful work while switching. Its speed varies from machine to machine, spending on the memoryspeed, the number of registers which must be piled, and the existence of special instructions.Typically, the speed ranges from 1 to 1000 microseconds. Context-switch times are highlydependent on hardware support.
Inter Process Communication
: (
) is a set of techniques for the exchange of data among twoor more threads in one or more processes. Processes may be running on one or more computersconnected by a network. IPC techniques are divided into methods for message passing,synchronization, shared memory, and remote procedure calls (RPC). The method of IPC usedmay vary based on the bandwidth and latency of communication between the threads, and thetype of data being communicated.
Co-operating Process
: The process executing in the operating system may have either independent processes of co-operating process. Co-operating processes must have the means tocommunicate with each other. Principally, there exist two complementary communication
schemes: shared memory and message systems. The shared memory method requirescommunicating processes to share some variables. The processes are expected to exchangeinformation through the use of shared variables. The method system method allows the processesto exchange message. The responsibility for providing communication then rests with theoperating system itself.
.4What do you mean by Deadlock? Explain the conditions that results in a deadlock situation.
A set of processes is in a deadlock state when every process in the set is waiting for an event that can be caused by only another process in the set. The events with which we mainlyconcerned here are resource acquisition and release. The resources may be either physicalresources or logical resources.
Conditions for occurring deadlock situations
Mutual exclusion
: At least one resource must be held in a non- sharable mode; that is only one process at a time can use the resource.
Hold and wait
: There must exist a process that is holding at least one resource and is waiting toacquire additional resources that are currently being held by other processes.
No preemption
: Resources can not be preempted; that is, a resource can be released onlyvoluntarily by the process holding it, after that process has completed its task.
Circular wait
: There must exist a set {P
, P
, ….. P
} of waiting processes such that P
iswaiting for a resources that is held by P
, P
is waiting for a resource that is held by P
….. P
iswaiting for a resource that is held by P
, and P
is waiting for a resource that is held by P
Use First-Come First Serve Algorithm and Shortest Job First Algorithm to schedule thefollowing process:Process Burst TimeP17P25P38P42P53Ans.The average waiting time under First Come First Serve policy, however, is often quite long.Considering the following set of processes that arrive at time 0, with the length of the CPU- burst timegiven in milliseconds:P1P2P3P4P50 7 5 8 2 3If the processes arrive in the order P
, P
, P4 and P
and are served in FCFS order, we get the resultsas:The waiting time is 0 milliseconds for process P
, 7 milliseconds for process P
, 12 milliseconds for P
,20 milliseconds for P
and 22 milliseconds for process P
. There the average waiting time is (0 + 7 + 12+ 20 + 2)/5 = 8.2 milliseconds.If the processes arrive in the order P
, P
, P4 and P
and are served in Shortest Job First order, we getthe results as:

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