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Published by: raunak19 on Apr 24, 2010
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Subject Name: DBMS and SQL Server set 1
Draw a Data Flow Diagram for a University
scenarioData Flow Diagram:
The data flow diagrams are used to illustrate the data processactives of an organization. The DFD indicate all the sequences including how datagenerated, stored and processed.
Data Flow Diagram for university scenario: 2. Discuss the following with suitable examples:
Relational Algebra Operators
Relational Algebra is a procedural language used for manipulating relations .Therelational models gives the structures for relations so that data can be stored in thatformat but relational algebra enables us to retrieve information from relations. Theoperators of Relational Algebra are:
Select : This is a unary operator that selects a subset of tuples of the relation,whichsatisfy selection condition. this can be represented by<Select condition> (<relation name>).For ex.: salary>8000(faculty).
StudentValidateEdit and UpdateRegistered CoursesReformat andSortTeacher Student
Roll List
Course registration
Roll List
Project : This is also unary operator ,that chooses subset of attributes or columns of a relation and restricts all the tuples of a relation to those attributes. Thisis represented by<
attribute list
>(<relation name>).For ex.:
Cartesian Product : This is binary operator that combines information across tworelations. Cartesian product of two relationsR=(A1,A2,A3,A4,…..) and S=(B1,B2,B3,…)can be represented as:Q=R*S= (A1, A2, A3….B1, B2, B3…).
Join : This is also a binary operator which is widely used and this operator concatenates only tuples that satisfy certain conditions .This is represented byR |
cond S.
Union ,Intersection and Difference : These operators are similar to set unio, setinterection and set difference .To have union relations must have same number of attributes and corresponding attributes must have same domain. 
Divide : This is operators is useful when the query involves the world all. Divisionoperator can be used to answer queries of the form: Names of employees working inall projects, Names of the student’s registerd for all courses etc...This operator isdenoted by /.
Renaming : This is often required to refer to the same relation twice in a query indifferent contexts. This is done by calling a relation by some other name.
Assignment: This is used to assign a relational algebra expression to a relation. Therelation can subsequently used wherever the relation algebra expression is needed.This is denoted by T=R S.
Semi –join : Semi –Join operator is basically a join followed by a project on theattributes of first relation. These are used in distributed databases to send only thosetuples of the relation which participate in the join to other site. This is denoted by(R S) where denotes project on all attributes of R.
Database Planning
It is known fact that the needs of the organization are different at different levels of management. Basically one classifies the needs into three categories as below:1)Operational databaseWhich contains data assisting day to day activities of the organization?2)Control databaseWhich contains data assisting needs of middle management to monitor andcontrol business activities by effective and efficient management of man,machines and money?3)Strategic planning database which contains data required for top management for taking long-term decision?

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