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Extrusion and Drawing

Extrusion and Drawing

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Published by: dema_dias on Apr 25, 2010
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Chapter (8)
Extrusion and drawing
8.1 Introduction
Extrusion and drawing have numerous applications in themanufacture of continuous as well as discrete products from a widevariety of metals and alloys. In extrusion, a cylindrical billet is forcedthrough a die (Fig. 8.1) in a manner similar to squeezing toothpaste froma tube or extruding Play-Doh® in various cross-sections in a toy press. Awide variety of solid or hollow cross-sections may be produced byextrusion, which essentially are semifinished parts. A characteristic of extrusion (from the Latin
extntdere,
meaning "to force out"} is that largedeformations can take place without fracture, because the material isunder high triaxial compression during extrusion. Since the die geometryremains unchanged throughout the operation, extruded products typicallyhave a constant cross-section. Lead pipes were made by extrusion in the1700s. Plastics are extruded extensively..Typical products made by extrusion are railings for sliding doors,window frames, tubing having various cross-sections, aluminum ladders,and numerous structural and architectural shapes. Extrusions can be cut intodesired lengths, which then become discrete parts, such as brackets, gears,and coat hangers (Fig. 8.2). Commonly
 –19–
 
FIGURE 8.1
Schematic illustration of the direct-extrusion process.
FIGURE 8.2
Extrusions and examples of products made by sectioning off extrusions.
Source:
Courtesy of Plymouth Extruded Shapes.
extruded materials are aluminum, copper, steel, magnesium, and lead;other metals and alloys also can be extruded, with various levels of difficulty.Because a chamber is involved, each billet is extruded individually,thus extrusion is a batch or semi continuous process. Extrusion can be
 –20–
 
economical for large production runs as well as for short ones. Tool costsgenerally are low, particularly for producing simple, solid cross-sections.Depending on the ductility of the material, extrusion may be carriedout at room or elevated temperatures. Extrusion at room temperatureoften is combined with forging operations, in which case it generally isknown as cold extrusion. It has numerous important applications,including fasteners and components for automobiles, bicycles,motorcycles, heavy machinery, and transportation equipment.Drawing is an operation developed between 1000 and 1500 A.D., inwhich the cross-section of solid rod, wire, or tubing is reduced or changedin shape by pulling it through a die. Drawn rods are used for shafts,spindles, and small pistons and as the raw material for fasteners (such asrivets, bolts, and screws). In addition to round rods, various profiles alsocan be drawn. The term
drawing 
also is used to refer to making cup-shaped parts by sheet-metal forming operations.The distinction between the terms rod and wire is somewhatarbitrary, rod being larger in cross-section than wire. In industry, wiregenerally is defined as a rod that has been drawn through a die at leastonce. Wire drawing involves smaller diameters than rod drawing withsizes down to 0.01 mm (0.0005 in.) for magnet wire and even smaller for use in very low-current fuses.
8.2 The Extrusion Process
There are three basic types of extrusion. In the most common process(called direct or forward extrusion), a billet is placed in a
chamber 
(container) and forced through a die opening by a hydraulically driven
 –21–

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