economical for large production runs as well as for short ones. Tool costsgenerally are low, particularly for producing simple, solid cross-sections.Depending on the ductility of the material, extrusion may be carriedout at room or elevated temperatures. Extrusion at room temperatureoften is combined with forging operations, in which case it generally isknown as cold extrusion. It has numerous important applications,including fasteners and components for automobiles, bicycles,motorcycles, heavy machinery, and transportation equipment.Drawing is an operation developed between 1000 and 1500 A.D., inwhich the cross-section of solid rod, wire, or tubing is reduced or changedin shape by pulling it through a die. Drawn rods are used for shafts,spindles, and small pistons and as the raw material for fasteners (such asrivets, bolts, and screws). In addition to round rods, various profiles alsocan be drawn. The term
also is used to refer to making cup-shaped parts by sheet-metal forming operations.The distinction between the terms rod and wire is somewhatarbitrary, rod being larger in cross-section than wire. In industry, wiregenerally is defined as a rod that has been drawn through a die at leastonce. Wire drawing involves smaller diameters than rod drawing withsizes down to 0.01 mm (0.0005 in.) for magnet wire and even smaller for use in very low-current fuses.
8.2 The Extrusion Process
There are three basic types of extrusion. In the most common process(called direct or forward extrusion), a billet is placed in a
(container) and forced through a die opening by a hydraulically driven