Holy Trinity Orthodox Mission
of apologetics, its aims, tasks and place in the system of theologicalsciences; also a brief review of the history of apologetics (Chapter 10).
and its origin.
The positive disclosure of the question, and the analysis of the negative points of view (Chap. II-III).
The Existence of God
The basic arguments and the analysis of counter-arguments (Chap. IV).
Religion and human activity.
Science, philosophy, Orthodoxy; the problem of cognition; the social activity of the Church; freedom of man, the Church and religiousfreedom; exorcism and the attitude towards it of the holy fathers of the Church (Chap.V).
The natural and supernatural search for God; its types, signs and
criteria of verity; the holy fathers‘ teaching abo
ut the attitude towards miracles, vi-sions, etc. (chap. VI).
. The bases of Orthodox spiritual life, sanctity. (Chap.VII).
The origin, basic types, assessment. (Chap.VIII).
The Religion of the Old Testament
Faith and life; the Old and New Testaments
I. The Concept of Apologetics.
protection, justification, intercession; a speech, said orwrit
ten in someone‘s defense;
to defend oneself, to justify oneself, to state orprese
nt in one‘s personal defense) in the general sense is any kind of defense of Christianity from
the accusations and criticism of its enemies; in the specific sense
a branch of theology, whosegoal is to reveal and substantiate the truths of Christian faith, and which has to give an answer toanyone asking, or to refute the incorrect religious, philosophic or other world views which standin opposition to Christianity. Apologetics as the defense of Christianity has existed since its veryappearance and continues as such to this day. As a special branch of theology, or as a separatescience, apologetics appeared with the development of scholastic theological education.Throughout history its range and content have changed greatly, and has appeared under variousnames: the apologetics of Christianity, natural theology, philosophical or basic dogmatics, spe-culative theology, general theology, introductory theology, basic theology. In the second half of the 19
century, such independent disciplines from the field of apologetics gradually appear asthe History of Religion, Biblical archeology and textology, Biblical history, Exposal (Compara-tive) theology. In the 19-20
centuries, in theological schools both in the West and in Russia,apologetics was included in the courses of
or was treated as the same discipline
(for example, I. Nikolin. ―The Course on Basic Th
ology or Apologetics.‖ Sergiev Posad, 1904).
In 1996, the reformed study program of theological schools of the Russian OrthodoxChurch treats apologetics and basic theology as two separate subjects. In addition, apologeticspreserves its specificity, and is mainly orientated towards the defense of Christianity from thecriticism of other world-views and systems of thought. The task of basic theology is the exami-nation and analysis of the main Christian truths of faith and life from the point of view of the in-tellectual, moral, cultural and other generally accepted norms and criteria.