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F Protection Against Electric Shocks

F Protection Against Electric Shocks

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Published by: Nguyễn Trịnh Thành Vinh on Apr 25, 2010
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F
Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2010
   ©   S  c   h  n  e   i   d  e  r   E   l  e  c   t  r   i  c  -  a   l   l  r   i  g   h   t  s  r  e  s  e  r  v  e   d
Chapter FProtection against electric shocks
Contents
General F2
 
1.1 Electric shock F21.2 Protection against electric shock F31.3 Direct and indirect contact F3
 Protection against direct contact F4
2.1 Measures o protection against direct contact F42.2 Additional measure o protection against direct contact F6
 Protection against indirect contact F6
 
3.1 Measures o protection: two levels F63.2 Automatic disconnection or TT system F73.3 Automatic disconnection or TN systems F83.4 Automatic disconnection on a second ault in an IT system F103.5 Measures o protection against direct or indirect contactwithout automatic disconnection o supply F13
 Protection o goods in case o insulation ault F7
 
4.1 Measures o protection against re risk with RCDs F174.2 Ground Fault Protection (GFP) F17
 Implementation o the TT system F9
 
5.1 Protective measures F195.2 Coordination o residual current protective devices F20
 Implementation o the TN system F23
 
6.1 Preliminary conditions F236.2 Protection against indirect contact F236.3 High-sensitivity RCDs F276.4 Protection in high re-risk locations F286.5 When the ault current-loop impedance is particularly high F28
 Implementation o the IT system F29
 
7.1 Preliminary conditions F297.2 Protection against indirect contact F307.3 High-sensitivity RCDs F347.4 Protection in high re-risk locations F357.5 When the ault current-loop impedance is particularly high F35
 Residual current dierential devices (RCDs) F36
 
8.1 Types o RCDs F368.2 Description F368.3 Sensitivity o RDCs to disturbances F39
 
2
 
3
 
4
 
5
 
6
 
7
 
8
 
EIG_chap_F-2010.indb 104/12/2009 12:02:41
 
Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2010
F2
F - Protection against electric shock 
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 General
. Electric shock 
An electric shock is the pathophysiological eect o an electric current through thehuman body.Its passage aects essentially the muscular, circulatory and respiratory unctions andsometimes results in serious burns. The degree o danger or the victim is a unctiono the magnitude o the current, the parts o the body through which the currentpasses, and the duration o current fow.IEC publication 60479-1 updated in 2005 denes our zones o current-magnitude/ time-duration, in each o which the pathophysiological eects are described (see 
FigF
). Any person coming into contact with live metal risks an electric shock.Curve C1 shows that when a current greater than 30 mA passes through a humanbeing rom one hand to eet, the person concerned is likely to be killed, unless thecurrent is interrupted in a relatively short time.The point 500 ms/100 mA close to the curve C1 corresponds to a probability o heartbrillation o the order o 0.14%.The protection o persons against electric shock in LV installations must be providedin conormity with appropriate national standards and statutory regulations, codes opractice, ocial guides and circulars, etc. Relevant IEC standards include:
IEC 60364series, IEC 60479 series, IEC 60755, IEC 61008 series, IEC 61009 series
and IEC60947-2.
Fig. F1
 : Zones time/current o eects o AC current on human body when passing rom let hand to eet 
Body current
I
s
(mA)1020501002005001,0005,00010,0002,000C
1
C
2
C
3
Duration of currentflow
I
(ms)A B
AC-2 AC-3 AC-4
0.1 0.2 0.5 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 5001,0002,0005,00010,000
AC-1AC-4.1AC-4.2AC-4.3
AC-1 zone: ImperceptibleAC-2 zone: PerceptibleAC-3 zone : Reversible eects: muscular contractionAC-4 zone: Possibility o irreversible eectsAC-4-1 zone: Up to 5%probability o heart brillationAC-4-2 zone: Up to 50% probability o heart brillationAC-4-3 zone: More than 50% probability o heart brillation
When a current exceeding 30 mA passes through a part o a human body, the person concerned is in serious danger i the current is not interrupted in a very short time.The protection o persons against electric shock in LV installations must be provided in conormity with appropriate national standards statutory regulations, codes o practice, ocial guides and circulars etc.Relevant IEC standards include: IEC 60364,IEC 60479 series, IEC 61008, IEC 61009 and IEC 60947-2.
A curve: Threshold o perception o currentB curve: Threshold o muscular reactionsC
1
curve: Threshold o 0% probability o ventricularbrillationC
2
curve: Threshold o 5% probability o ventricularbrillationC
3
curve: Threshold o 50% probability o ventricularbrillation
EIG_chap_F-2010.indb 204/12/2009 12:02:42
 
F3
Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2010
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.2 Protection against electric shock 
The undamental rule o protection against electric shock is provided by thedocument IEC 61140 which covers both electrical installations and electricalequipment.Hazardous-live-parts shall not be accessible and accessible conductive parts shallnot be hazardous.This requirement needs to apply under:
b
Normal conditions, and
b
Under a single ault conditionVarious measures are adopted to protect against this hazard, and include:
b
Automatic disconnection o the power supply to the connected electrical equipment
b
Special arrangements such as:
v
The use o class II insulation materials, or an equivalent level o insulation
v
Non-conducting location, out o arm’s reach or interposition o barriers
v
Equipotential bonding
v
Electrical separation by means o isolating transormers
.3 Direct and indirect contact
Direct contact
A direct contact reers to a person coming into contact with a conductor which is livein normal circumstances (see
Fig. F2
).IEC 61140 standard has renamed “protection against direct contact” with the term“basic protection”. The ormer name is at least kept or inormation.
Indirect contact
An indirect contact reers to a person coming into contact with an exposed-conductive-part which is not normally alive, but has become alive accidentally (dueto insulation ailure or some other cause).The ault current raise the exposed-conductive-part to a voltage liable to behazardous which could be at the origin o a touch current through a person cominginto contact with this exposed-conductive-part (see
Fig. F3
).IEC 61140 standard has renamed “protection against indirect contact” with the term“ault protection”. The ormer name is at least kept or inormation.
Two measures o protection against direct contact hazards are oten required, since, in practice, the rst measure may not be inallible Standards and regulations distinguish two kinds o dangerous contact,
b
Direct contact 
b
Indirect contact and corresponding protective measures 
Busbars123N
I
s: Touch current
I
s
Insulationfailure123PE
I
d
I
d: Insulation fault current
I
s
Fig. F2 
: Direct contact 
Fig F3 
: Indirect contact 
 General
EIG_chap_F-2010.indb 304/12/2009 12:02:42

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