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CRS - RL31247 - Africa and the War on Terrorism

CRS - RL31247 - Africa and the War on Terrorism

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WikiLeaks Document Release
February 2, 2009
Congressional Research ServiceReport RL31247
Africa and the War on Terrorism 
Ted Dagne, Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade DivisionUpdated January 17, 2002
Abstract.
African countries overwhelmingly expressed their support for the U.S.-led efforts on the war againstterrorism shortly after the September 11 attacks on New York and Washington. Some African countriesare reportedly sharing intelligence and are coordinating with Washington to fight terrorism in Africa. Thegovernments of Kenya and Ethiopia are working closely with U.S. officials to prevent fleeing Al-Qaeda membersfrom establishing a presence in Somalia. Africa may not be as important to the United States in this phase of thewar against terrorism as European allies or Pakistan, but in the next phase of the terror war African may prove key.
 
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Congressional Research Service 
 
˜˜
 
The Library of Congress 
CRS Report for Congress
Received through the CRS Web
Order Code RL31247
Africa and the War on Terrorism
January 17, 2002
Ted DagneSpecialist in International RelationsForeign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division
 
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Africa and the War on Terrorism
Summary
African countries overwhelmingly expressed their support for the U.S.-led effortson the war against terrorism shortly after the September 11 attacks on New York andWashington. Some African countries are reportedly sharing intelligence and arecoordinating with Washington to fight terrorism in Africa. The governments of Kenya and Ethiopia are working closely with U.S. officials to prevent fleeing Al-Qaeda members from establishing a presence in Somalia. Africa may not be asimportant to the United States in this phase of the war against terrorism as Europeanallies or Pakistan, but in the next phase of the terror war Africa may prove key.The Bush Administration has been courting African governments to join theU.S.-led coalition in the fight against terrorism. Administration officials are pleasedwith the level of support they have received from African governments. In lateOctober 2001, President Bush told more than 30 African ministers who wereattending the annual African Growth and Opportunity Act Forum that “Americawon’t forget the many messages of sympathy and solidarity sent by Africans.” BushAdministration officials note that Africa, with its large Muslim population, can playa pivotal role in solidifying support in Muslim and Arab countries.Administration officials believe that Africa is a potential breeding ground forterrorism. Indeed, in recent years, Africa has emerged as an important staging area,training center, and a favored place to target U.S. interests. On August 7, 1998, mid-morning explosions killed 213 people, 12 of whom were U.S. citizens, at the U.S.embassy in Kenya, and eleven people at the U.S. embassy in Tanzania. In June 1995,members of the Islamic Group, an Egyptian extremist group, tried to assassinatePresident Hosni Mubarak of Egypt in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.U.S. officials are closely monitoring countries vulnerable to terrorist penetrationand influence, as well as countries that are sympathetic to these groups. Althoughthere are over a dozen countries where terrorist groups have established a strongpresence in Africa, Administration officials are closely watching several countries,including Sudan and Somalia. Sudan has long been considered a rogue state by muchof the world community because of its support for international terrorism. Somaliais another country where the United States is seriously concerned about terroristactivities. Since the ouster of the dictator Siad Barre government in 1991, Somalia hasbeen without a central government. The absence of central authority has created aconducive environment for terrorist and extremist groups to flourish in Somalia.Some African officials are concerned that despite the strong support Africangovernments have provided to the anti-terror campaign, they are not seen as realcoalition partners in the fight against terrorism. African officials note that cooperationbetween the United States and Africa in the fight against terrorism should also includeextraditing and apprehending members of African terrorist and extremist groupsactive in Europe and the United States. They argue that these groups are raisingfunds and organizing in the west, often unhindered by western governments.

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