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Japanese Verb Chart

Japanese Verb Chart

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Published by: suramcorion on Apr 27, 2010
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09/22/2010

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Japanese Verb Chart
This chart lists the possible ways to conjugate verbs. Base 3 is the form that verbs are inwhen you read them in the dictionary. The Example column is the dictionary form of theverbs. You will notice that it is the same as the Base 3 column. For all normal verbs, thelast syllable in Base 3 determines how it will be conjugated. Verbs that end in
eru
or 
iru
have their own special category, along with the verbs
kuru
and
suru
. Just below thechart I have some verbs listed that end in eru or iru, but go in the normal category.If you are a beginner learning Japanese, then most of the verb examples you will see will probably be in the "masu" form. To put a verb in the masu form, use Base 2 and addmasu to the end of the conjugation. The masu form of verbs is almost always taught firstto people learning Japanese, because it can be used in almost any situation and not beconsidered rude. The way you form and end your verbs determines the level of speechand how polite you are. It takes a while to get down when it is ok to say what. That iswhy you should learn the masu forms first. Note that I am using aa, ii, uu, ee, oo for the long vowels. This has the same meaning aswhen a line is put over the vowel.CategoryExampleBase 1Base 2Base 3Base 4Base 5te-formta-form normalkaukakuhanasumatsushinuisoguyobuyomutoruka-waka-kahana-sama-tashi-naiso-gayo-bayo-mato-raka-ika-kihana-shima-chishi-niiso-giyo-biyo-mito-rika-uka-kuhana-suma-tsushi-nuiso-guyo-buyo-muto-ruka-eka-kehana-sema-teshi-neiso-geyo-beyo-meto-reka-ooka-koohana-sooma-tooshi-nooiso-gooyo-booyo-mooto-rooka-tteka-itehana-shitema-tteshi-ndeiso-ideyo-ndeyo-ndeto-tteka-ttaka-itahana-shitama-ttashi-ndaiso-idayo-ndayo-ndato-ttaeru/iruendingtaberumirutab-em-itab-em-itab-erum-irutab-erem-iretab-eyoom-iyootab-etem-itetab-etam-itaspecialkurusuruko-shi-ki-shi-kurusurukure-sure-koyooshiyookiteshitekitashitaThe following verbs end in eru or iru, but are conjugated like normal verbs.
iru (to need)
kaeru (to return)
kagiru (to limit / restrict)
kiru (to cut)
shaberu (to chatter / shoot the breeze)
shiru (to know)
shimeru (to become damp / moist)
 
suberu (to slip)
teru (to shine)
nonoshiru (to abuse / scold / speak ill of)
hairu (to enter)
hashiru (to run)
heru (to reduce / decrease)
mairu (to come / go - polite)
Base 1
There are three main uses for Base 1
The plain negative form
-nai
- the same for all three categories
The passive case (to be instead of to do)
-reru
- normal verbs
-rareru
- eru/iru and special verbs
The causitive case (make to do case)
-seru
- normal verbs
-saseru
- eru/iru and special verbsThe Plain Negative Form (Examples)
hon o kawanai - He will not buy the book 
tegami o kakanai daroo - He perhaps/probably will not write the letter 
 Nihongo de hanasanai deshoo - He perhaps/probably does not speak Japanese
shinaide kudasai - Please do not die
matanaide mo ii desu - Even if you don't wait, it's ok (you don't have to wait)
isoganakute mo ii desu - It's ok not to hurry (you don't have to hurry)
konakatta - He did not come
yomakattara... -
If 
you did not read it...
yobanai to... -
If 
you do not call...
toranakereba... -
If 
you do not take it...
tabenakereba narimasen - If you don't eat, it won't happen (you
must
eat) NOTE: this is how you say must in Japanese
shinakute wa ikemasen - You should not do it
miranai to omoimasu - I think that I don't see it (I don't think I see it)The Passive Case (Examples)normal verbs
kawareru - to be bought (plain ending)
kawaremasu - to be bought (masu ending)
kawarenai - to not be bought (plain ending)
kawaremasen - to not be bought (masu ending)
 
eru/iru verbs
taberareru - to be eaten (plain ending)
taberaremasu - to be eaten (masu ending)
mirareru - to be seen (plain ending)
miraremasu - to be seen (masu ending)The Causitive Case - make to do (Examples)normal verbs
kawaseru - to have him buy it (plain ending)
kawasemasu - to have him buy it (masu ending)eru/iru verbs
tabesaseru - to feed / cause to eat (plain ending)
tabesasemasu - to feed / cause to eat (masu ending)
Base 2
Besides the masu verb ending, there are several uses for Base 2.The conjugation is the same for all three categories.The masu verb ending (Examples)
ikimasu - to go (present tense)
ikimasen - to not go (present tense)
ikimashita - went (past tense)
ikimasen deshita - did not go (past tense)
ikimashoo - let's goMisc. verb endings for Base 2 (Examples)
ikinasai - go (
command
/ imperative)
tabenasai - eat (
command
/ imperative)
kinasi - come (
command
/ imperative)
hon o kai ni iku -
go to
buy a book (plain ending)
hon o kai ni ikimasu -
go to
buy a book (masu ending)
tabe ni iku -
go to
eat (plain ending)
tabe ni ikimasu -
go to
eat (masu ending)
tabe ni ikimashoo - let's go and eat!
kore wa yomiyasui - this is
easy
to read
kore wa tabeyasui - this is
easy
to eat
kore wa shiyasui - this is
easy
to do
sore wa kakinikui - that is
hard
to write

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