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Draft Bahan Ajar

Draft Bahan Ajar

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Published by aminfikri
kuliah
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Published by: aminfikri on Apr 27, 2010
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05/02/2013

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BAHAN AJARKULIAH PERBAIKAN TANAH
OlehDr. rer. nat. Arief RachmansyahDr. Eng. Yulvi Zaika
 Jurusan Teknik SipilFakultas Teknik Universitas Brawijaya
 
Development Application of Elektrokinetic Phenomena inGeoengineering and Geoenviromental
 
1. Abstact
Fenomena alektrokinetik yang menjelaskan hubungan antara aliran air dengan aliran listrik pertamakali ditemukan oleh Reuss tahun 1809. Dalam bidang geoteknik fenomena ini pertama kaldimanfaatkan oleh Casagrande tahun 1952 untuk menurunkan kandungan air (dewatering) padatanah berbutir halus, sehingga kuat gesernya meningkat. Sejak itu metode ini cukup luas digunakandi beberapa negara Eropah daratan untuk perbaikan tanah berbutir halus. Pada dekade 1980anfenomena ini diaplikasikan dalam grouting elektrokimia untuk perbaikan pondasi yang berdiri di atastanah-tanah berbutir halus tanpa harus merusak bangunan. Selama penerapan metode ini kendalautama yang dihadapi adalah proses korosi yang terjadi pada anoda. Beberapa upaya untuk menyempurnakan pelaksanaan metode ini telah dilakukan oleh bebeapa peneiliti, baik dari segi operasi maupun peralatan. Dalam dua dekade terakhir metode ini mulai dikaji lagi untumembersihkan tanah tercemar oleh logam berat. Kajian untuk perbaikan dan perluasan aplikasi metode ini dalam bidang geoteknik dan geoenviromental perlu dilakukan secara berkelanjutan.The electrokinetic phenomena that shows coupling between electrical and hydraulic flows have beenwell established since their discovery by Reuss in 1809. In geotechnical area Casagrande in 1952 demonstrated first time the application electrokinetic to increase in the effective stress of fine grainsoil. Since that time, however, the widespread application of electrokinetic has been prevented by avariety of technical problems, typically related to the limitations of available electrodes. In the last twodecades some institutions developed electrokinetic phenomena to remediate of contaminated soil by heavy metal. The study on the application of this phenomenon in geoengineering angeoenvironmental should be developed widespread.
2. History of Elektrokinetik Phenomena
The ability of electrokinetic phenomena to transport water, charged particles and free ions throughfine-grained soils has been well established since their discovery by Reuss in 1809.The water content of fine-grained soils is a fundamental physical characteristic of the material and hasa large impact on the material's strength. Controlling water in fine-grained soils, such as clay, istherefore of paramount importance but presents recurrent problems owing to the very low hydraulicpermeability of the materials.In 1939, Casagrande (1952) demonstrated that applying electrokinetics to fine-grained soils with highwater contents resulted in an increase in the effective stress within the soil through the generation of negative pore water pressures. He used this to increase soil shear strength and thus stabilize steeprailway cuttings. Since that time, however, the widespread application of electrokinetics has beenprevented by a variety of technical problems.
3. Electrokinetic Phenomena
Coupling between electrical and hydraulic flows and gradient can be responsible electrokineticphenomena in materials such as fine-grained soil, where there are charged particles balanced bymobile counter charges. There are four recognized electrokinetic phenomena that occur in soil-water mixtures. These are:
Electroosmosis, movement of water through a solid matrix under an electric field
Electrophoresis, movement of suspended particles through water under an electric field
Streaming potential,
 
small electric field caused by the movement of water through a soilmatrix
Sedimentation or migration potential
, s
mall electric field caused by movement (sedimentation)of solid particles through water, or movement of cations and anions under an electric fieldOf these phenomena, electroosmosis and electrophoresis are the most relevant to the commercialapplication in Geoengineering and Geoenvironmental. Electroosmosis generally occurs in soils, and
 
electrophoresis tends to occur in slurries and colloids. The boundary between the two processes issomewhat gradational but can be related to Atterberg limits.When a D.C. voltage is applied across a wet soil mass, ion migration takes place. Positive ions(cations) are attracted to the cathode and repelled from the anode and negative ions (anions) areforced in the opposite direction. As the cations migrate along the porewater / solid boundary layer theydrag with them their water of hydration and exert a viscous drag upon the free pore fluid around them.The Helmholtz-Smoluchowski theory (Helmholtz, 1879; Smoluchowski, 1914) is the generallyfavoured theory of electroosmosis, and the condenser analogy it adopts assumes that the soilcapillaries have charges of one sign on or near the surface of the wall (negative) and countercharges(positive) concentrated in a double layer protruding a small distance from the wall, the remaining voidis assumed to be filled with free pore fluid, as shown below.Fig. 2: Helmholtz-Smoluchowski Model for electroosmotic flow (After Mitchell, 1993).
Electrical Gradient Induces Water Flow
Ε 
 (DC)AnodeSaturated ClayCathodeH2OElectrical Gradient Induces ParticleMovement
Ε 
 (DC)AnodeClaySuspensionCathodeParticle MovementGenerates ElectricalPotential
Ε 
 Water Flow InducesPotensial Gradient
Ε 
Saturated ClayH2O
 
Η 
Fig 1: Elektrokinetic phenomena, electroosmosis, electrophoresis, streaming potenstial andmigraftion or sedimentation potential (clock wise), after Mitchell (1993)

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