ECE 580 – Term Project Quantum Dot Lasers2
electrons and holes less complicatedly. The confinement of the motion of holes and electrons canbe created by
e.g. doping, strain, impurities, external electrodes
the presence of an interface between different semiconductor materials
e.g. in the case of self-assembled QDs
the presence of the semiconductor surface
e.g. in the case of a semiconductor nanocrystal
or by a combination of these .
1.2. Quantum Confinement Effect
To understand the QD concept, first of all, we should consider the quantum confinement effectson electrons. Quantum confinement occurs when one or more of the dimensions of a nanocrystalapproach the Exciton Bohr radius. The concepts of energy levels, bandgap, conduction band andvalence band still apply. However, the electron energy levels can no longer be treated ascontinuous - they must be treated as discrete. , 
Figure 2 – Comparisons of quantum wells, wires, rods and dots
. Geometries of the different structures.
Plots of E
(the increase in the bandgap over the bulk value)against d (the thickness or diameter) for rectangular quantum wells, cylindrical quantum wires and spherical QDs obtained from particle-in-a-box approximations. The grey area between the dot and wirecurves is the intermediate zone corresponding to quantum rods. The vertical dotted line and pointsqualitatively represent the expected variation in the bandgap for InAs quantum rods of varyinglength/diameter ratio, as studied by Kan et al.
. A plot of E
against length/diameter ratio for the InAsquantum rods synthesized by Kan et al., showing the dependence of the bandgap on the shape of thequantum rods. The dotted line represents the variation expected from a particle-in-a-box approximation.