Mr. A S. ChhatwalMr. Tilak RajMs. Sumathy NairAsstt. Registrar (Publication), Sr. ScaleSection Officer (Publication)Proof ReaderSOMS, IGNOUSOMS, IGNOUSOMS, IGNOU
Course Design Committee and Preparation Team
Prof. V.L. Mote (Retd.)Dr. C.G. NaiduIIM, AhmedabadPlanning & Development DivisionIGNOU, New DelhiProf. G.S. GuptaProf. B.B. KhannaIIM, AhmedabadDirectorSchool of Management StudiesIGNOU, New DelhiProf. Arindam BanikDr. Neeti AgrawalIMI, New DelhiSchool of Management StudiesIGNOU, New DelhiProf. AtmanandDr. G. SubbayammaMDI, Gurgaon
Course Coordinator and Editor
School of Management StudiesIGNOU, New DelhiProf. Rajat Kathuria
IMI, New DelhiDecember, 2003
© Indira Gandhi National Open University, 2003
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the Indira Gandhi National Open University.Further information about the Indira Gandhi National Open University courses may be obtained fromthe University’s Office at Maidan Garhi, New Delhi-110 068.
Printed and published on behalf of the Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi,by Director, School of Management Studies.Cover designed by H D Computers, Inderpuri, New Delhi.Lasertypeset by ICON Printographics, B-107 Fateh Nagar, New Delhi-110 018Printed at Berry Art Press, A-9, Mayapuri Industrial Area, Phase-1, New Delhi-64Paper used : Agrobased Environment Friendly.