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Table Of Contents

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
1.1 BASIC CONCEPTS
1.2 BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC ENVIRONMENT
1.3 ADVERSE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
1.5ENVIRONMENTAL ACTS AND REGULATIONS
1.5.1 International Concern for Environment
1.5.2 Environmental Protection Laws in India
1.6REGULATORY STRUCTURE OF POLLUTION CONTROL AUTHORITIES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS
1.6.1 Functions of M.O.E.F
1.6.2 Functions of the Central Pollution Control Board
1.6.3 Functions of the State Pollution Control Board
1.7CONCLUSION
2.1INTRODUCTION
2.2 WATER RESOURCES
WATER POLLUTION
2.2.1 Rainfall
2.2.2 Distribution of Rainfall
2.2.3 Measurement of Rainfall
2.3SURFACE SOURCES OF WATER SUPPLY
2.4SUBSURFACE OR UNDERGROUND SOURCES
2.4.1 Porosity
2.4.2 Permeability
2.5 GROUND WATER YIELD
2.5.1 Drilling of Tube-Wells
2.5.2 Lowering of Pipes and Gravel Packing
2.5.3 Development of Tube-wells
2.5.4 Yield of a Tube-Well
2.5.4.1 Yield of a tube-well in an unconfined aquifer
2.6BASICS OF THE WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES
2.6.1 Quality of Water
2.6.2 Characteristics of Water
2.7 TREATMENT OF WATER
2.7.1 Screening
2.7.2 Plain Sedimentation
2.7.3 Sedimentation Aided with Coagulation
2.7.4 Filtration
2.7.5 Disinfection
2.7.6 Aeration
2.7.7 Water Softening
2.8REQUIREMENT OF PRESSURE OF WATER TO BE SUPPLIED
2.9 WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT
2.9.1 Prevention of Pollution
2.9.2 Statutory Water and Sanitation Boards
2.9.3 Waste Water Management
2.9.3.1Collection of Domestic Wastewater
2.9.3.2Conveyance or Transportation of Waste Water
2.9.3.3Design of the Sewer Line
2.9.3.4Hydraulics of Sewers
2.9.4 Treatment of Wastewater
2.9.4.1Unit Operations and Processes
2.9.4.2Methods of Treatment of Wastewater
2.9.5 Anaerobic Digestion
2.9.6 Disposal of Treated Wastewater (Effluent)
2.9.7 Disposal into Water Bodies
2.9.7.1 Disposal on Land
2.9.8 Onsite Sanitation
2.9.9 Septic Tank
2.9.10 Soak Pits
2.10 IN-HOUSE TREATMENT AND SAVING OF WATER
AIR POLLUTION
3.1INTRODUCTION
3.2FORMAL DEFINITION OF AIR POLLUTION
3.3CLASSIFICATION OF POLLUTANTS
3.3.1 Classification of Air Pollutants
3.2.2. Primary and Secondary Air Pollutants
3.4 CLASSIFICATION BASED ON POSITION
3.5. HARMFUL EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON MATERIALS
3.6CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION
3.7 CONTROL OF AUTOMOBILE POLLUTION
3.7.1 Catalytic Converter
3.8NOISE POLLUTION
3.9GREENHOUSE EFFECT & GLOBAL WARMING
3.10 ACID RAIN
3.11 OZONE DEPLETION
3.11.1Causes of the Ozone Layer Depletion
3.11.2Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion
3.11.3Preventive Action to Ozone Depletion
3.12 CONCLUSION
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
4.2 CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE
4.2.1. Importance of Classification
4.3 COMPOSITION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLID WASTE
4.3.1. Characteristics of Municipal Solid Waste in Indian Cities
4.4 EXPECTED QUANTITIES OF SOLID WASTE
4.5 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
4.6 CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
4.7 WASTE MANAGEMENT APPROACH
4.7.1 Inventory Management and Improved Operation
4.7.2 Utilization of Waste
4.8SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT: AN OVERVIEW
4.8.1 Identification of Waste and its Minimization at the Source
4.8.2 Collection, Segregation and Storage at the Site of Collection
4.8.3 Transportation of Solid Waste
4.8.4 Treatment of Solid Waste
4.9 ENERGY RECOVERY FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
4.9.1 Parameters Affecting Energy Recovery
4.13 CONCLUSION
ECOLOGY
5.1INTRODUCTION
5.1.3 Classification of Various Aspects of Ecology
5.1.3.3Classification on the Basis of Habitat
5.1.4 Functional Concepts of Ecology
5.2 BASICS OF SPECIES
5.3 ECOSYSTEM
5.3.1 Cyclic Operation of Ecosystems
5.3.1.1 Geophysical
5.3.3 Biome and Ecosystem
5.4.1 Solar Energy
5.5.1 Sea as an Ecosystem
5.5.2 Estuaries
5.5.3 Streams and Rivers
5.5.4 Lakes and Ponds
5.5.5 The terrestrial Formations
5.5.6 Deserts
5.5.7 Tundras
5.5.8 Grasslands
5.5.9 Forest
5.6BIODIVERSITY
5.6.1 Basic Laws of Biodiversity
5.7POPULATION ANALYSIS
5.7.1 Population Characteristics
5.7.2 Regulation of Population
5.7.3 Population Dynamics
5.8CONCLUSION
RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY
6.1INTRODUCTION
6.2RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY
6.2.1Solar Energy
6.2.2Wind Energy
6.2.3Energy from Water
6.2.4Energy from Oceans
6.2.5Energy from Biomass
6.2.6Geothermal Energy
6.3POTENTIAL OF RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES IN INDIA
6.4 CONCLUSION
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
7.2NECESSITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
7.3METHODOLOGY OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
7.2.1 Identification of Impact Areas
7.2.1.1Water Resource Project
7.3.1.2Hydroelectricity Project
7.3.1.3Navigation Project
7.3.1.4Tidal Hydroelectricity Project
7.3.1.7 Geothermal energy
7.3.1.8 Solar energy
7.3.1.9 Thermal power plants
7.3.1.11 Biomass or Biogas Power Plant
7.3.1.12 Industries
7.3.2 Data Collection
7.3.3 Prediction
7.4 CONCLUSION
NOISE POLLUTION
8.1INTRODUCTION
8.2LEVELS OF NOISE
8.3THE NATURE OF SOUND
8.3.3 Power and Intensity
8.4 SENSITIVITY OF SOUND
8.6 ACCEPTABLE NOISE LEVELS
8.7 EFFECTS OF NOISE
8.8ADVERSE EFFECTS OF NOISE
8.8.1 Effects on Human Body Function
8.8.2 Sleep Interference
8.8.3 Effect on Working Efficiency
8.8.4 Effect on Wild Life
8.8.5 Effects on Non-living Things
8.9 CONTROL OF NOISE POLLUTION
8.9.1 Noise Control at Source
8.9.2 Noise Control along the Path
8.10 NOISE CONTROL AT RECEIVING END
8.11 OTHER WAYS OF NOISE CONTROL
8.12 MEASUREMENT OF NOISE
8.13 CONCLUSION
BIBLIOGRAPHY
INDEX
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Basic Environmental Engineering

Basic Environmental Engineering

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Published by: ramyaalakshmi on Apr 27, 2010
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