Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
10Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
7.Alkalimetals _IA__153-164_

7.Alkalimetals _IA__153-164_

Ratings: (0)|Views: 601 |Likes:
Published by eamcetmaterials

More info:

Published by: eamcetmaterials on Apr 28, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/12/2014

pdf

text

original

 
 1
7. ALKALIMETALS (IA)
SYNOPSIS:ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION :
Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs and Fr belongs to IA group.Oxides of Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs dissolve in water giving strong alkalies. So these elements areknown as alkali metals.General electronic configuration is ns1, they are members of ‘s’ block 
Electronic configuration of Alkali metals:
 Element Atomic Electronic
Numberconfiguration
Li 3 [He]2S1Na 11 [Ne]3S1 K 19 [Ar]4S1 Rb 37 [Kr]5S1 Cs 55 [Xe]6S1 Fr 87 [Rn]7S1
 Occurrence of Alkali metals :
 These elements are highly reactive and do not occur in free state.
All the alkali metals are silvery white, soft and lightmetalsOrder of abundence is Na > K >Rb > Li>CsUsually They occur as their halides such as common salt - NaCl, sylvine - KCl, Carnalite -KCl.MgCl2.6H2O.
General propertiesSize of the atoms- Atomic Radii
.
The alkali metal atoms have the largest atomic radii in their respective periods.
These radii go on increasing on going down the group.
Density
Alkali metals are light metals having low densities. Densities of alkali metals increases fromlithium to caesium The density of potassium is lesser than that of sodium contrary to theexpectations. This is probably because of the abnormal increase in atomic size on moving fromNa ( 186 pm) to K (227 pm ) . Hence potassium is lighter than sodium. Lithium is the lightestknown metal ( density =0.534 g/cc )
Melting and boiling points
Melting and boiling points of alkali metals are quite low and decrease down the group .
Ionisation Energies
 The first ionisation energy of alkali metals is the lowest amongst the elements in their respectiveperiods .The alkali metals show great tendencies to lose the only elements in their respectiveperiods. The alkali metals show great tendencies to lose the only s-electron present in theirvalence shells after which they acquire stable noble gas configuration.
()()1
[][]
gg
 M M e Noblegas ns Noblegas
++
+
 The first ionisation energies of elements decrease on moving down the group .
Powered by www.myengg.comPowered by www.myengg.com
 
 Alkalimetals (IA)
2
The second ionisation energies of all the alkali metals are very large because when one electronis lost from these elements the resulting ions acquire noble gas configurations which are verystable and have high effective nuclear charge. thus large amounts of energies are required toremove the second electron.On account of their low ionisation energies. Alkali metals have a great tendency to lose electronand form positive ions .
()()
gg
 M M e
+
+
 Hydration of Ions
All alkali metals are salts are ionic ( except Lithium ) and soluble in water .the amount of energy released when one mole of ionic compound is dissolved in large excessof water is known as hydration energy .
Relative ionic Radii
:
Cs Rb K Na Li
+++++
>>>
 
Relative ionic radii in water :
 
 Li Na K Rb Cs
+++++
>>>>
 
.
Relative degree of hydration :
:
 Li Na K Rb Cs
+++++
>>>>
 
Ionic moblities in aqueous solutions:
 
Cs Rb K Na Li
+++++
>>>
 
CHEMICAL CHARACTERSTICS OF ALKALI METALSAction of Air :
Alkali metals are so reactive that they tarnish rapidly when exposed to air because of theformation of oxides, hydroxides and ultimately carbonates at the surface.
()22()()2()2()()
422
s sgs l s
 M O M O M O H O MO
++
 
2
()232()
2()
COs l
 MOH M CO s H O
 +
 When burnt in air Li reacts with
2
O
as well as
2
 N 
 
()22()()
42
s sg
 Li O Li O
+
 
()23()()
62
s sg
 Li N Li
+
 
Action of Oxygen
Alkali metals when heated with oxygen or excess of air form oxides the nature of which dependsupon the nature of alkali metals
22
42
 Li O Li O Lithiummonoxide
+
 
222
2
 Na O Na OSodium peroxide
+
 
22
sup
K O KOPotassium eroxide
+
 
Reaction with water
:
The alkali metals reacts vigorously with water by libration of and large amount of heat
22
2222
 M H O M OH H HEA
+
+→+++
 
Action with Hydrogen
Alkali metals combine with hydrogen at about 673 K forming ionic hydrides
 M 
+
 
 H 
.
2
22
 M H M
+
( where
,,)
 M Li Na K etc
=
 
Powered by www.myengg.comPowered by www.myengg.com
 
 Alkalimetals (IA)
3
These ionic hydrides have high melting pointsSince electropositive character increases from
 Li
to
Cs
the ease of formation of hydridedecreases from
 Li
to
 Li
. reacts with at about 1073 K.
The Alkali metal hydrides are attacked by water ( or any other proton doner like alcohols
3()
g
 NH 
 , and alkynes etc) to give back hydrogen.
22
 MH H O MOH
++
 
Action with Halogens :
Alkali metals combine readily with halogens
2
()
 X 
to form ionic halides
 M
+
where M is anAlkali metal
2
22
 M X M
+
+
 [ where M=Li , Na,K,Rb,Cs and X=F,Cl, Br, I ]
Reactively of alkali metals towards a particular halogen
Cs Rb K Na Li
>>>>
 As the electropositive character increases from top to bottom in the group , the ease of formationof alkali metal halides increases from Li to Cs.
Reactivity of halogens towards a particular alkali metal
2222
F Cl Br
>>>
 
All halides of alkali metals ( except LiF ) are highly soluble in water.
Reducing Nature of Alkali Metals:
All alkali metals are strong reducing agents.
Among all the alkali metals, Li is the strongest and Na is the weakest reducing agent. Lithiumalthough has the highest ionisation energy ( i.e, it holds its valence electrons most tightly) yet it isthe strongest reducing agent.
Nature of Hydroxides :
 Alkali metals hydroxides ( except Lithium hydroxide ) are strongest of all bases.
22
2
 LiOH Li O H O
Δ
 +
 the basic character of alkali metal hydroxides increases on going down the group
CsOH RbOH KOH NaOH LiO
>>>>
 SALT OF OXO-ACIDS :Nature of carbonates and Bicarbonates:
23
 Li CO
is unstable towards heat and decomposes to give
2
CO
 
2322
 Li CO Li O CO
Δ
 +
 
3
 LiHCO
does not exist in solid state
The thermal stability of carbonates and bicarbonates increases on moving down the group.
The solubility of carbonates and bicarbonates increases when we move down the group.
The increasing order of solubility is ;
2323232323
 Li CO Na CO K CO Rb CO Cs CO
<<<<
 
Bicarbonates
:
Bicarbonates of alkali metals are crystalline solids ·.Their solubility in water and thermalstability increases in the order
3333
 NaHCO KHCO RbHCO CsHCO
<<<
 
Nature of Nitrates
3
 LiNO
upon heating decomposed to give
2
 NO
and
2
O
whereas the nitrates of other alkali metalsdecomposes upon heating to nitrates and evolve only
2
O
 
3222
424
 LiNO Li O NO O
Δ
 ++
 
Powered by www.myengg.comPowered by www.myengg.com

Activity (10)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
cksharma68 liked this
s.ramalingam liked this
mariowolff liked this
vivivi4u liked this
ashish2expert liked this
issamgar liked this
sudeep26 liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->