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10.Group 14 Elements _IV A__187-200_

10.Group 14 Elements _IV A__187-200_

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 1
10. GROUP 14 ELEMENTS (IV A)
SYNOPSIS:Symbol
At. No
Valence shellconfiguration
Penultimate shellconfiguration
 
C 6 2s
2
2p
2
 C
2e
s
2
 Si 14 3s
2
3p
2
 Si
8e
s
2
p
6
Ge 32 4s
2
4p
2
GeSn 50 5s
2
5p
2
 Si 18e
 
Pb 82 6s
2
6p
2
Pb s
2
p
6
d
1
°They belong to p-block.
General valence shell configuration:
 
Almost all properties will show a normal trend from C to Si, But, beyond Si, the trend or change slowsdown due to ineffective screening caused by d and f electrons.
General properties:Abundance:
Most abundant is Si. Even C is also more abundant. Least abundant is Ge.
Density:
It increases down the group. C has higher density than Si due to its diamond form
Order:
Si < C < Ge < Sn < Pb
M.Ps and B.P.s:
They will decrease down the group due to decrease in the inter atomic attraction.
 
C has highest M.P and B.P in the entire periodic table.
 
Order of M.P.’s
C > Si >Ge > Sn < Pb
 
Order of B.P.’s
C > Si < Ge > Sn > PbSn has least M.P.Pb has least B.P.
Atomic radius:
Increases down the group.
 
Normal increase from C to Si but slow increase from Si onwards. It is due to poor shielding of d e
-
 in Ge and d and f electrons in others.
 
Thus, the difference in the atomic radii between Si and Ge is much smaller when compared to that of Cand Si.
 
Even lanthanide contraction accounts for smaller increase in atomic radii.
Ionisation potential:
It decrease normally from C to Si.Thereafter, the decrease is very slow.
Electronegativity:
It decreases normally from C to Si but there after, it remains constant.
Metallic nature:
It gradually increases from C to Pb.C, Si are non-metals.Ge is metalloidSn, Pb are metals
 
Because of gradual increase in metallic nature, IVA group is best suitable for the study of periodicity in properties.
Oxidation states:
 
Common oxidation state is + 4.
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Group 14 Elements (IVA)
2
 
Tin and lead will exhibit + 2 oxidation state also. + 2 is more common and more stable than + 4 forSn and Pb due to inert pair effect.
Valency :
 
Common valency is 4.
 
Maximum valency of C is also 4 due to the absence of vacant d-orbitals.
 
Si and other elements can exhibit a maximum valency of 6 due to the presence of vacantd–orbitals.
Catenation:
The ability to form long chains or rings by the atoms of an element is called catenation.
 
Catenation ability decreases due to decrease in the bond energy.
 
Thus, C has highest catenation than any other element in the periodic table
Comparison of C and SiSimilarities:
Due to similar valence shell configuration they have some similarities.
 
Both are non-metals.
 
Both are abundant in nature.
 
Both exhibit tetravalancy.
 
Both exhibit common oxidation state of + 4
 
Both will exhibit allotropy.
 
Both will form many similar compounds.
Carbon Silicon
Oxides CO
2
SiO
2
 Halides CCl
4
SiCl
4
 Hydrides CH
4
, C
2
H
6
, C
3
H
8
, etc. SiH
4
, Si
2
H
6
, Si
3
H
8
, etc.Oxyacids H
2
CO
3
(Carbonic acid)
 
(COOH)
2
(oxalic acid)H
2
SiO
3
(Silicic acid)H
2
Si
2
O
4
(Silico oxalic acid)
Differences:
C and Si have some differences due to different (n – 1) shell configuration.C
(n – 1)s
2
2e
 Si
(n – 1)s
2
p
6
8e
Carbon Silicon
It is present in living beings. It is present in minerals, rocksetc.It is hard. It is soft.It has high m.p. It has low m.p.Its catenation ability ismaximum.Its catenation ability is limited.
Its maximum valency is 4. Its maximum valency is 6.
Some allotropes of C aregood conductors.All its allotropes are badconductors.
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Group 14 Elements (IVA)
3
Differences in their compounds:Oxides
CO
2
is gas. SiO
2
is solid.CO
2
exist as monomer and only weak Vanderwaal’s forces exists.SiO
2
is solid. SiO
2
has giantpolymeric structure.In CO
2
, C is bonded to two ‘O’s bydouble bonds.O = C = OIn SiO
2
, Si is bonded to four ‘O’sby single bonds.CO
2
is solube in water . SiO
2
is insoluble in water.
Halides
It forms CCl
4
. It forms SiCl
4.
 As C does not contain vacant d orbitals inits valence shell, it cannot extend its valencybeyond 4.As Si contains vacant d-orbitalsin its valence shell it can exhibit avalency of 6.CCl
4
is saturated.SiCl
4
is unsaturated andCCl
4
is insoluble in H
2
O.it can form two more bonds.It is soluble in H
2
O.CCl
4
is not hydrolysed. SiCl
4
is hydrolysed .CCl
4
does not form species like CCl
4
.2H
2
O,CCl
62-
.It forms species like SiCl
4
.2H
2
O,SiCl
62-
.CCl
4
cannot act as Lewis acid. SiCl
4
can act as Lewis acid
Hydrides
It forms large number of hydrides. It forms very few hydrides.Its hydrides are stable because C – H bond isnon polar and it doesnot weaken theadjacentC – C bond.Silanes are unstable because Si –H bond is slightly polar and itweakens the adjacent Si – Si bond.Hydrides of C are not hydrolysed due tonon-polar nature .They are hydrolysed due to polarnature.These are weak reducing agents.These are strong reducing agents.O-O-Si-OH – C – C–H
 
HH
 
HH – Si – Si–HHHH
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