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Ampere's Circuital Law

# Ampere's Circuital Law

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01/10/2013

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Class XII/PHYSICS
1.Magnetic field at the centre of a circular loop
Consider a circular loop of radius a, centre O and carrying current I as shown. Tofind the magnetic field at O, consider an infinitesimally small length AB=dl of theloop. Join the centre O to the middle point C of the current element AB.
ACO=90
°
.According to Biot-Savart’s law, the magnetic field at O due to AB is
20
ˆ4
a I B
×=
π   µ
, where
ˆ
is the unit vector along COSince the angle between
Id
and
ˆ
is 90
°
, the magnitude of magnetic field at point Odue to AB is given by-
190sinsince,  490sin4
2020
=°=°=
a Idl a Idl dB
π  µ π  µ
Hence the magnetic field at O due to the whole circular loop, is given by-
dl 4 4
2020

∫ ∫ ∫
===
a I a Idl dB B
π  µ π  µ
Now,
π
2
=
∫
, the circumference of the circular loop. Therefore,
πa2 4
20
a I  B
π  µ
=
Or,
π24
0
a I  B
π  µ
=
------------------------------ (1)In case the circular loop has n turns, then-
πn24
0
a I  B
π  µ
=
------------------ (2)If the current flows in the clockwise direction, then the magnetic field at its centre is perpendicular tothe plane of the loop and in inward direction. Else, if the current flows in the anti-clockwise direction,then the magnetic field at its centre is perpendicular to the plane of the loop and in outward direction.
AMPERE’S CIRCUITAL LAW
The statement of Ampere’s circuital law is:“The line integral of magnetic field (induction) ,
B
around any closed path in a magnetic field is equalto
0
µ
(magnetic permeability) times the current threading through the loop.”Mathematically,
I  B
∫
=
0
µ
----------------------- (3)
Applications of Ampere’s circuital law
1.To find magnetic field due to a very long and straight conductor carrying electric currentConsider a very long (in principle infinitely long) straight conductorcarrying electric current I as shown in the figure.Suppose the point P is at a distance r from the conductor. Draw a circle,passing through P.Line integral of the magnetic field along the circular path=

∫
B
According to Ampere’s circuital law,
I  B
∫
=
0
µ
-------- (4) The angle between
B
and
is zero. Therefore,
∫ ∫ ∫
==°=
d B Bdl  Bdl  B
0cos
But,
d
π
2
=
∫
, the circumference of the circular path of radius r. Therefore,
B B
π
2.
∫
=
-------------------- (5)From equations (4) and (5), we have-
B
π
2.
=
0
µ
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SRHSS/2010/ MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT Page 1 of 5 Preparedby: Sandhya.K

Class XII/PHYSICS
Or,
I  I  B
2.42
00
π  µ π  µ
==
----------------- (6)It gives magnetic field due to a very long and straight conductor carrying electric current at a pointdistant r from it.
2.Magnetic field due to a long straight solenoid
A helical coil consisting of closely wound turns of insulated conducting wire is called asolenoid.
Consider a long straight solenoid having n turns per unit length and woundon a cylindrical former. When a current is passed through a solenoid themagnetic field is produced, which is strong and uniform inside, while it isnegligibly weak outside.At well inside the solenoid, the magnetic field is uniform and parallel to thelength of the solenoid. To calculate
B
consider a rectangular path A, B, C and D. let the length of thepath be AB=L. Number of turns of the solenoid enclosed by the rectangle isequal to nL. The total current threading through the rectangular path is nLI.According to Ampere’s circuital law, line integral of magnetic field along therectangular path ABCD is equal to
( )
nL
0
µ
i.e.
( )
nL B
ABCD
0
µ
=

∫
--------------- (7)Now,
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
+++=
A D B A D B ABCD
B B B B B
-------------- (8) The magnetic field on part CD of the loop will be zero as it is lying outside the solenoid.Also some part of AD and BC is outside and the part inside is perpendicular to themagnetic field. Hence magnetic field on them is zero.
0
===
∫ ∫ ∫
A D B D
B B B
Therefore, eqn. (8) becomes,
∫ ∫
=
B A ABCD
B B
Along the path AB,
B
and
are along same direction, the angle between
B
and
is zero. Therefore,
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
==°=
B A B A B A B A
dl  B Bdl  Bdl  B
0cos
Now,
Ld
B A
=
∫
, the length of the side AB of the rectangular path ABCD. Hence,
BL B
ABCD
=
∫
Therefore, equation (7) becomes,
( )
nLI  BL
0
µ
=
Or,
n B
0
µ
=
--------------------- (9) At points near the ends of the solenoid, the magnetic field is given by-
n B
0
21
µ
=
-------------------- (10)
FORCE ON A CHARGE MOVING IN UNIFORM MAGNETIC FIELD

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SRHSS/2010/ MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT Page 2 of 5 Preparedby: Sandhya.K

Class XII/PHYSICS
When a charged particles moves across a magnetic field, a magnetic force is experienced by thecharged particle. The magnitude of force on the charge depends on the following factors:
Magnetic force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the charge,

F
α
q
Magnetic force is directly proportional to the intensity of magnetic field or magnetic fluxdensity.
F
α
B
Magnetic force is directly proportional to the component of velocity along a directionperpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field,

F
α
vSin
θ
Combining above statements:
F
α
BqVSin
θ
Or,
F
=
k BqVSin
θ
------------- (1)Where k is the constant of proportionality.In S.I when B is measured in tesla, q in coulomb and v inmetre second
-1
, the value of k is found to be 1. Therefore,
F
=
BqVSin
θ
------------- (2)
The force on a charged particle moving in a magnetic field iscalled magnetic Lorentz force.
Equation (2) gives the magnitude of magnetic Lorentz force.In vector notation,
( )
Bvq F
×=
------------------- (3) Thus, if the charged particle moves along X-axis with a velocity v and the magnetic field is directedalong Y-axis, then the force on the charge +q acts in the direction of
( )
Bv
×
, that is, along Z-axis.
SPECIAL CASES:
When the charged particle is at rest:
If the particle is at rest, then v=0. Fromequation (2), the force on the charged particle,
0sin)0(
==
θ
Bq F
Thus, inside a magnetic field, a stationary charged particle does not experience any force dueto the magnetic field.
When the charged particle moves parallel to the magnetic field:
If v is parallel to Bthen, θ=0
°
or 180
°
. Then, From equation (2), the force on the charged particle,
0)0(
==
Bqv F
[Since sin0
°
=sin180
°
=0] Thus, inside a magnetic field, a charged particle does not experience any force due to themagnetic field, if it moves parallel to the magnetic field.
When the charged particle moves perpendicular to the magnetic field:
If v isperpendicular to B then, θ=90
°
. In that case, From equation (2), the force on thecharged particle,
Bqv Bqv Bqv F
==°=
1.)90(sin
(Maximum)
Unit of strength of magnetic field:
In S.I, the unit of strength of magnetic field is tesla (T). Fromequation (2),
θ
sin
qv F  B
=
Therefore,
11
11/11 11
=××=
m NA sm N tesla
(Since
A s
=
)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SRHSS/2010/ MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT Page 3 of 5 Preparedby: Sandhya.K