Hypoxemia includingvascular insufficiency
Fever (during childhood-nottreated)
Hypertension e.g.preeclampsia, eclampsia
CNS infection e.g.meningitis, encephalitis
Metabolic & toxic conditionse.g. renal failure,eletrolytes imbalance (Na
), hypoglycaemia,pesticides poisoning
Perinatal neurological injury
Drug & alcohol withdrawal
Brief Pathophysiology toSeizure
Clinical Manifestations of Seizure
Depends on the location of thedischarging neurons
Initial part of seizure (the startof seizure) tells about the partof brain where seizure originate
Simple partial seizure;
No loss of consciousness (
Finger / hand may jerk, mouth jerk uncontrollably.
Talk unintelligibly, dizzy,experience unusual sights,odours, tastes.
Complex partial seizures;
Remains motionless / movesautomatically butinappropriate to time / place
Experience excessiveemotions of fear, anger,elation / irritability
Sometimes will have the‘blank stare’ & unable toprovide appropriateresponse to questions whenasked during seizure attack
Post- seizure / post-ictally;does not remember theseizure experience
Generalized seizures(alsoknown as grand mal);
Involve both side of brainhemispheres – both sides of body to react
Intense rigidity of bodyoccur alternate with musclerelaxation (tonic =contraction & relaxation)
Chewing of tongue / injureoral mucosa
Urinary & fecal incontinence
After 1-2 minutes post-ictal,patient relaxes & lies indeep coma, breathingnoisily using abdominalmuscle.
Post-ictal; confused, hard toarouse, sleep for hours, maycomplain of headache, soremuscles, fatigue &depression
Some with uncontrolledseizures & poor familysupport can be depressive &suicidal.
Diagnostic Tools for DiagnosingSeizure / Epilepsy