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3rd Order O.D.E. /Cubic Complex Variables/Applications

# 3rd Order O.D.E. /Cubic Complex Variables/Applications

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Complex Variables have been generalized in a natural way. They are used to solve 3rd order ODE just as ordinary complex variables are helpful when solving certain 2nd order
ODE.Many engineering applications are possible.
Complex Variables have been generalized in a natural way. They are used to solve 3rd order ODE just as ordinary complex variables are helpful when solving certain 2nd order
ODE.Many engineering applications are possible.

Published by: MusicMathMaster on Apr 28, 2010

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11/16/2012

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Third Order O.D.E.'s And Cubic Complex Numbers: Possible Applications By Ronald H. BradyTable Of ContentsTopic Page No. Abstract 2Second and Third Order O.D.E.’s 3Cubic Complex Numbers 5The Cubic Complex Exponential Function 11 Norms and Pseudo Norms 22Kinematics Of Simple Harmonic Motion And Damped Harmonic Motion 23

AbstractIt is well known that a second order O.D.E. of the form y
’’
+ y = 0, where the primes indicate differentiation withrespect to the independent variable (which may be chosen to betime), may be used, with an appropriate choice of units, todescribe simple harmonic motion in one spatial dimension. If weconsider y to be a function of x, y = y(x), then the solutionsof that equation involves the periodic functions sin(x) and cos(x). These functions are related, via Euler’ formula,e
ix
= cos(x) + i*sin(x) .to the Euler complex exponential function e
ix
. The pure imaginaryunit i, of course, also plays a prominent role in the formula.The present paper will present a derivation of a 3
rd
orderO.D.E. that is applicable to damped simple harmonic motion. Thesolutions to that 3
rd
order O.D.E. will be shown to be related toa generalization of Euler’s formula. This generalization, inturn, will be based upon a natural generalization of complexnumbers from the plane to a Commutative Algebra in threedimensions.The presentation of potentially new identities and symmetries, rather than formal mathematical rigor, is the primary purpose of this paper. Therefore the style of

presentation will be informal. All of the indicated derivatives,of all of the functions under discussion, are assumed to exist.Second and Third Order O.D.E.’sNow let us turn our attention to the general homogeneoussecond-order ordinary differential equationy
’’
+ By
+ Cy = 0 (eq.1)where the coefficients B and C are constant. In particularif B = 0 and C = 1, then (eq.1) reduces toy
’’
+ y = 0 (eq.2) As is well known, two (linearly) independent solutions(eq.2) are cos(x) and sin(x). These functions are as-sociated with many identities such ascos
2
(x) + sin
2
(x) = 1. (eq.3)They also appear in the fundamental identitye
ix
= cos(x) + i*sin(x) (eq.4)(known as Eulers’ Formula). Equations (eq.3) and (eq.4), play indispensable roles in math, science,engineering and theoretical physics. The reader willrecall that since e
ix
is a linear combination of cos(x)and sin(x), it is also a solution of the ordinarydifferential equation (O.D.E), (eq.2).Let us pose the question: are there 3
rd
order O.D.E.’s withconstant coefficients such that similar identities areassociated with them? Well why don’t we start our search for the

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