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Smart Grid

Smart Grid

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Published by sweetypie1622

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Published by: sweetypie1622 on Apr 28, 2010
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03/27/2013

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1
CHAPTER-1
 
W
HAT IS A SMART GRID?
A smart grid [1] delivers electricity from suppliers to consumers using two-way digitaltechnology to control appliances at consumers' homes to save energy, reduce cost and increasereliability and transparency.It is capable of assessing its health in real-time, predicting its behavior, anticipatory behavior, adaptation to new environments, handling distributed resources, stochastic demand,and optimal response to the smart appliances. It is a tool that allows electric utilities to focus onevolving true business drivers by enabling cost containment, end-to-end power delivery control,and a more secure infrastructure.The grid is considered to have observability with nodes data integration and analysis tosupport advances in system operation and control. This includes power delivery integration andhigh level utility strategic planning functions.The existing transmission and distribution systems use techniques and strategies that are oldand there is limited use of digital communication and control technology. To achieve improved,reliable and economical power delivery information flow and secure integrated communicationis proposed.The Smart Grid with intelligent functions is expected to provide self-correction,reconfiguration and restoration, and able to handle randomness of loads and market participantsin real time, while creating more complex interaction behavior with intelligent devices,communication protocols, standard and smart algorithms to achieve complex interaction withsmart communication and transportation systems.The Smart Grid is planned to have the following key characteristics:
y
 
Self-healing
: A grid, which is able to rapidly detect, analyze, respond and restore from perturbations.
 
2
 
y
 
Empower and incorporate the consumer
: The ability to incorporate consumer equipment and behavior in the design and operation of the grid.
y
 
Tolerant of attack 
: A grid that mitigates and stands resilient to physical and cyber security attacks.
y
 
Provides power quality needed by 21st century users
: A grid that provides a qualityof power consistent with consumer and industry needs.
y
 
Accommodates a wide variety of generation options:
A grid that accommodates awide variety of local and regional generation technologies (including green power).
y
 
F
ully enables maturing electricity markets
: Allows competitive markets for thosewho want them.
y
 
O
ptimizes assets
: A grid that uses IT and monitoring to continually optimize its capitalassets while minimizing operations and maintenance costs.Overall, the Smart Grid design goals are to provide grid observability; create controllabilityof assets, enhance power system performance and security; and reduce costs of operations,maintenance, and system planning. Benefits of the Smart Grid with bring forth the following:
y
 
Improved system performance meters.
y
 
Better customer satisfaction.
y
 
Improved ability to supply information for rate cases, visibility of utility operation / assetmanagement
y
 
Availability of data for strategic planning, as well as better support for digital summary
y
 
M
ore reliable and economic delivery of power enhanced by information flow and securecommunication
y
 
L
ife cycle management, cost containment, and end-to-end power delivery is improved inthe smart grid design
y
 
Improved ability to supply accurate information for rate cases- with compounding impactin regulatory utilities
y
 
Input visibility of utility operation to asset management
y
 
Impact access to historical data for strategic planning.
 
3
 
1.1
FUN
CTI
ON
S S
U
PP
O
RTED BY THE SMART GRID ARCHITECT
U
RE
 For the functional scope of the Smart Grid architecture
 
[2], eight functional scenarios have been defined. A short description of each case is provided in the following subsections.
1.1.1
 
V
ariable-Tariff-Based Load
The key idea of this is a variable price profile given to the customer day ahead beforethe delivery by a retailer. This profile is considered fixed after transmission to the customer and, as such, the customer can rely on it. The price profile will look different for each day,reflecting market conditions that vary from day to day. These variations will likely further increase with expanding generation from fluctuating sources like wind power and photovoltaics. Generally, this concept allows for integration of loads as well as of generationunits at the customer site as it is up to the customer which devices are allowed to be managedaccording to the variable tariff. To enable in-home energy management, a suitable domesticsystem is required together with an automatic home management device coupled to anintelligent meter.
1.1.2
 
Energy
U
sage Monitoring and
F
eedback 
In the ³Action Plan for Energy Efficiency´, the European Commission estimates theEU-wide energy saving potential of households at approx. 27%. As one important measurefor realizing this potential, the action plan states that awareness must be increased in order tostimulate end-customer behavioural changes. A timely display of energy consumption isexpected to have positive effects on energy savings. Personalized and well targeted advice onhow to save energy can further help exploit the savings potential. A portal or display thatcombines information about present and past consumption, comparisons to averageconsumption patterns, and precise suggestions how to further lower consumption, which are

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