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Physicial Science Lessson Plan

# Physicial Science Lessson Plan

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10/03/2010

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Stephanie YoncePhysical Science Lesson PlanApril 2010Page
1
of
7

Introduction

Lesson topic
: Simple Machines with a focus on the Lever

Length of Lesson (estimated):
30 minutes

VA Standards of Learning:
Standard 3.1The student will plan and conduct investigations in whicha)

objects with similar characteristics are classified into at least two sets and two subsets;c)

questions are developed to formulate hypotheses;g) data are gathered, charted, and graphed (line plot, picture graph, and bar graph); j) inferences are made and conclusions are drawn; andk) natural events are sequenced chronologically.Science Standard 3.2The student will investigate and understand simple machines and their uses. Key concepts includea)

types of simple machines (lever, screw, pulley, wheel and axle, inclined plane, and wedge);b)

how simple machines function;
Learning Objectives
Students Will:

Perform work without the use of a simple machine initially to ensure perspective throughout the lesson

Create and operate a lever using classroom objects.

Analyze and observe how the effectiveness of a lever changes when its components (location of thefulcrum) are changed.

Identify machines around them (either in the classroom or at home) that work by utilizing the lever.
Teaching and Learning Sequence

Introduction/Anticipatory Set

Introduce students to simple machines

o

Brainstorm different types of machines with the class.

Stephanie YoncePhysical Science Lesson PlanApril 2010Page
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o

Explain to the students that the machines they listed are all created using
simple machines
whichare designed to make
work
easier.
o

Inform students about the concepts of work and how it relates to force, energy, friction, gravity,and resistance.

o

Provide students with their very own Simple Machines coloring book (Hernandez); includevocabulary worksheet (Hernandez).

o

Tell students that today they will be learning about the simple machine, the lever.

o

Flip through the Simple Machines coloring book to find the lever coloring page.

Have students write down an example on this page of a lever they may see or use everyday
o

Focus the rest of the lesson on one type of simple machine: The Lever

Lesson Development

–

Ask two volunteers to come try to lift a heavy box of books using nothing but their own strength.

This is to demonstrate to the class how difficult it is to lift a heavy box with no aid and nothing butyour own strength.

Tell students that next they will be working with their classmates in small groups to conduct the sameexperiment their classmates just volunteered for.

Place students into small groups of 3-4 and assign each group a cardboard box with 3-4 heavybooks inside.

Have the students work together to find different ways they are able to lift the box of bookswithout any materials but themselves.

Provide suggestions to groups who are having difficulties, e.g. try having two people lift thebox, or all four group members can lift the box
–
one time using 1 arm (total of 4 arms) andanother time using 2 arms (total of 8 arms).

Ask the students if it was easier to lift the box alone or with help from classmates.

Explain that it was easier because they had shared the work with one another. The weight of thebox remained the same, but the resistance that had to be overcome seemed less since the work wasdivided up.

Stephanie YoncePhysical Science Lesson PlanApril 2010Page
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If 2 people lifted the box, each person lifted ½ of the weight. If 3 people lifted the box, eachperson lifted 1/3 of the weight.

Eureka! The Lever, a Simple Machine.

Ask the students what is different about how the person is moving the rock than how they moved thebooks.

Let the students experiment with this concept by having them create their own version.

First, have the students place the book on the table by itself and try lifting it from one side using just their fingers.

Then, have each student take 1 book from the box assigned to their small group.

Give each student 2 pencils and a ruler & a handout titled
(Yonce,2009) to be completed during the activity.

Instruct the students to place the ruler flat on the desk and to lay one pencil in the dip along themiddle of the ruler.

Have them lay the 2
nd
pencil across the first one perpendicularly (define perpendicular for thestudents if not already understood).

Tell the students to lay their book across the 2
nd
pencil at one end and then push down on the otherend of the pencil.

Observe with the students the result. Was it easy?

How did it compare with lifting the book with just their fingers?

Remind them to record the results on the
handout.

Tell them to replace the book on top of the 2
nd
pencil and move the bottom pencil away from thebook, and then closer to the book? What difference does the location of the bottom pencil make?Is it harder or easier when the bottom pencil is farther away from the book?

Closure

–

Bring the students back together as a class.

Show the students the picture of the person moving a large rock again and show them the differentcomponents of the lever (Fulcrum & Lever).