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essential oil safety i

essential oil safety i

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02/01/2013

E ss
O IL
R O B E R T
T
E N T I
S A F
IS S E R A N D
A
E
L
T
Y
I
T
h e
stu d y
o f
e s s e n tia l
o il
s a fe ty
r a is e s
is s u e s
fu n d a m e n ta l
t o
th e
p ra ctice
o f
arom atherapy,
su ch
a s
e s s e n tia l
o il
in te g r ity ,
c h e m ic a l
c o m p o s itio n ,
m etabolism ,
an d
th e
r e le v a n c e
o f
a n im a l
te stin g .
N ew
in fo r m a tio n
o n
p h o to to x ic ity ,
n e u r o to x ic ity ,
rep ro d u ctiv e
to x ic ity
an d
c a r c in o g e n e s is
w ill
b e
p resen ted
i n
th e
c o n te x t
o f
th ese
is s u e s .
U n fo r tu n a te ly
e s s e n tia l
o il
s a fe ty
i s
a ls o
a n
a r e a
w h ere
co n fu sio n
i s
r ife .
So u rces
o f
in fo r m a tio n
g iv e n
o n
s a fe ty
i n
con su m er
b o o k s
a re
fr e q u e n tly
unknow n
o r
d u b io u s ,
an d
y e t
p ro n o u n cem en ts,
fr e q u e n tly
w ith o u t
an y
su p p o rtin g
e v id e n c e ,
a re
tr e a te d
a s
e s ta b lis h e d
P a c t s .
E s s e n t ia l
o il
s a fe ty
i s
a
b ig
s u b je c t ,
an d
o n e
th a t
m y
c o lle a g u e
T o n y
R a la r s
an d
m y s e lf
s t a r t e d
r e s e a r c h in g ,
i n
g r e a t
d ep th ,
i n
1 9 9 1 .
T h e
a im
o f
th a t
p r o je c t
w as
t o
g a th e r
d a ta
fo r
a
d e fin itiv e
te x tb o o k ,
an d
th u s
sh ed
lig h t
o n
th e
co n fu sio n .
I n
th is
a r tic le
I w ill
c o n c e n t r a t e
o n
ju s t
a
fe w
e x a m p le s .
A s
w ell
a s
h ig h lig h tin g
som e
a r e a s
o f
r is k ,
1
w ant
t o
d e b u n k
o n e
O I- T w o
m y th s,
an d
I
a ls o
w ant
t o
e m p h a s is e
th e
g r e a t
im p ortan ce
o f
b e in g
ed u cated
in
th e
s c ie n c e
o f
e m e n tia l
o ils
a n d ,
i n
p a r tic u la r ,
o f.
k n o w in g
th e
c h e m ic a l
c o m p o s itio n
o f
e a c h
o il
w c
u se,
an d
o f
th e
p ro cess
o fin te r a c r io n
I
T h e first
o f
a
th ree p a rt
series based
o n
a
p resen ta tion
g iv en
a t
A rom a
\u20189 5 .
T h e fu ll
tra n scrip t
is p u b lis h ed
i n
th e
C on feren ce
P roceed in g s.
P a rt
tw o w ill a p p ea r
i n
th e n ex t
issu e.
betw een
th e
e s s e n tia l
o il
an d
th e
hum an
b o d y .
W hen
d is c u s s in g
e s s e n tia l
o il
s a fe ty
i t
i s
im portant
t o
b e a r
i n
m in d
th a t
d iffe r e n t
chem otypes
o f
th e
sam e
o il
w ill
fr e q u e n tly
d em on strate
g r e a t
d iffe r e n c e s
i n
le v e ls
o f
to x ic ity .
T h is
i s
b e c a u s e
th e
m a jo r
com ponent
i n
e a c h
rhem otype
p la y s
a
s ig n ific a n t
r o le
i n
th e
to x ic ity
o f
th a t
e s s e n tia l
o il.
I t
i s
a ls o
w orth
r e m e m b e r in g
th a t,
a lth o u g h
m any
chem otypes
e x is t
fo r
m any
e s s e n tia l
o ils ,
th ey
a re
n o t
a lw a y s
com m ercially
a v a ila b le .
E s s e n t ia l
o ils
a re
ch em ically
c o m p le x ,
an d
ty p ic a lly
co n ta in
o v e r
1 0 0
com ponents
w ith
o n e ,
tw o
O I
som etim es
th ree
o f
th ese
d o m in a tin g
i n
term s
o f
p e r c e n ta g e .
w h ile
i t
i s
tru e
th a t
com ponents
ca n
an d
d o
m o d ify
e a c h
o t h e r s \u2019
b io lo g ic a l
a ctio n ,
i t
i s
a ls o
tru e
th a t
th e
m a jo r
com ponents
ten d
t o
d o m in a te
b o th
p h a r m a c o lo g ic a l
an d
to x ic o lo g ic a l
e ffe c ts .
L e s s
c o m m o n ly ,
m in o r
com ponents
h a v e
b e e n
fo u n d
t o
p la y
a n
im portant
b io lo g ic a l
r o le .
I t
i s
som etim es
s a id
th a t
s a fe ty
d a ta
o n
e s s e n tia l
o il
co m p o n en rs
m ay
n o t
b e
r e le v a n t,
s in c e
a
w h o le
e s s e n tia l
o il
m a\
h a v e
a
d iffe r e n t
a ctio n
t o
th a r
o f
it s
m a,j0L
com ponent.
T h is
i s
b e c a u s e
th e
com ponents
o f
a n
e s s e n tia l
o il
ca n
a ffe c t
e a c h
o t h e r \u2019s
b io lo g ic a l
a ctio n ,
e ith e r
b y
e n h a n c in g
p ro p erties
(sy n erg y )
o r
b y
red u cin g
th em
(a n ta g o n is m ).
S e e
ta b le
1 .
Sy n erg y
an d
a n ta g o n is m
ca n
a ffe c t
th e
to x ic o lo g y
o f
a n
e s s e n tia l
o il,
ju s t
a s
th ey
a ls o
in flu e n c e
it s
th erap eu tic
a ctio n .
H ow ever,
i t
i s
d iffic u lt
t o
p r e d ic t
w h en
e ith e r
sy n erg y
o r
a n ta g o n is m
w ill
i n
fa c t
ta k e
p la c e ,
an d
w hat
fo r m
i t
w ill
ta k e .
F o r
e x a m p le ,
i f
w e
k n o w
th a t
a n
e s s e n tia l
o il
co n ta in s
a
la r g e
p e r c e n ta g e
o f
a
to x ic
com ponent,
i t
w o u ld
b e
u n w ise
t o
assu m e
th a t
som e
o th e r
com ponent
o f
th e
o il
w ill
red u ce
th e
to x ic
e ffe c t
o f
th e
com ponent.
I n
th e o r y ,
i t
i s
ju s t
a s
lik e ly
th a t
th e
to x ic ity
o f
th e
m ain
com ponent
w ill
b e
en h an ced ,
n o t
red u ced ,
b y
o th e r
c h e m ic a ls
p resen t
i n
th e
o il.
M \u2019h a r
th is
m eans
i n
p ra ctice,
1
b e lie v e ,
i s
th a t
a n
e s s e n tia l
o il
c o n ta in in g
a
w o r r y in g
q u a n tit!
o f
a
to x ic
com ponent
s h o u ld
b e
assu m ed
d a n g e r o u s
u n til
p r o v e n
s a fe .
A
c la s s ic
e x a m p le
o f
th is
s c e n a r io
ca n
h e
fo u n d
i n
th e
e s tl-a g o le
( =
m e th y l
c h a v ic o l)
chem otype
o f
h a s il
o il
(ta b le
2 ).
E stra g o le
i s
know n
t o
h e
c a r c in o g e n ic
in
ro d e n ts ,
a n d
th e
lik e lih o o d
i s
th a t
i t
w ill
a lS o
b e
c a r c in o g e n ic
i n
hum ans,
i f
s u fficie n t
q u a n tity
en ters
th e
b o d y .
( I
w ill
d is c u s s
th is
p o in t
i n
m ore
d e ta il
la te r
o n .)
A n o th e r
fa cto r
a ffe c tin g
th e
c o m p o s itio n
o f
a n
e s s e n tia l
o il,
i s
w hat
w e
c o u ld
c a ll
it s
in te g r ity .
In te g rity
w o u ld
in c lu d e ,
fo r
in sta n ce,
th e
p o s s ib ility
o f
c o n ta m in a tio n
o r
a d u lte r a tio n ,
bu t
r ig h t
n o w
I
w ant
t o
fo cu s
o n
d e g r a d a tio n .
C h e m ic a l
d e g r a d a tio n
i s
th e
p ro cess
b y
w h ich
th e
q u a lity
o f
a
c h e m ic a l
su b sta n ce
i s
red u ced
o v e r
tim e.
I n
th e
c a s e
o f
e s s e n tia l
o ils
fo r
nrom atherap y
i t
i s
d e fin ite ly
u n d e s ir a b le ,
an d
ten d s
t o
O C C IW o n
p r o lo n g e d
s to r a g e ,
o r
u n clct-
p o o r
sto ra g e
c o n d itio n s .
T h e
th ree
m a jo r
fa cto rs
r e s p o n s ib le
fo r
e s s e n tia l
o il
d e g r a d a tio il
a r e :
0
atm osp heric
o x > g r n
0
h eat
0
lig h t.
A tin o s p h r i-ic
o s y g c n
c a l l
r h a n g e
th e
c h e m ic a l
c o m p o s itio n
o f\u2019
a n
e s s e n tia l
o il
b y
c o m b in in g
w ith
S O l,,C
o f
it s
T h is
p ro cess
i s
c a lle d
o x id a tio n
an d
ten d s
t o
O C C III\u2018 in
e s s e n tia l
:) i l s
r ic h
i n
terp en e\ ,
S U C l l
; t s
1 e 1 1 1 0 1 1
an d
p iile .
I.im o n e n e
an d
p in e n e ,
th e
r e la tiv e
m a jo r
co m p o n en ts,
Ir e
b o th
som ew hat
Ir n s ta b lc
terp en es.
O x id a tio n
i a
,p e e t le d
u p
b p
b o th
h e a t
an d
lig h t:
th is
i s
,v h v
it is im portant
t o
< to ,-c
e s s e n tia l
o ils
i n
-la r k
b o ttlr s
an d
Iw a y
1 \u20191 ~ o n i
\ ou rceh
o f
th ra l.
T h e
m ore
a il-
th ere
i s
i n
a
b o ttlr
o f
2 s r n t ia l
o il
1h C
co m p o n en ts.
m ore
r a p id ly
o x id a tio n
w ill
ta k e
p la c e .
O ne
im p licatio n
o f
c h e m ic a l
d e g r a d a tio n
i s
th a t
i t
in v o lv e s
a
c h e m ic a l
c h a n g e
i n
th e
e s s e n tia l
o il.
Becau se
o f
th is
c h e m ic a l
c h a n g e
b o th
th e
e ffic a c y
an d
th e
s a fe ty
o f
a n
e s s e n tia l
o il
ca n
b e
a lte r e d
fr o m
th e
norm .
I n
o n e
recen t
stu d y
w h ere
le m o n g r a s s
o il
w as
in te n tio n a lly
o x id is e d ,
i t
w as
fo u n d
t o
h a v e
lo s t
m u ch
o f
it s
a n tib a c te r ia l
a c tiv ity
w h en
com p ared
t o
fresh ,
u n o x id is e d
le m o n g r a s s
o il
[O r a fid iy a ,
1 9 9 3 1 .
I n
e x te n s iv e ly
o x id is e d
s a m p le s
a n tib a c te r ia l
a c tiv ity
w as
com p letely
lo s t.
I n
b itte r
a lm o n d
o il
th e
m a jo r
com ponent,
b e n L a ld e h y d e ,
ten d s
t o
o x id is e
t o
b e n z o ic
a c id
[B u d a v a r i,
1 9 8 9 1 .
B e n L o ic
a c id
is n o t
d a n g e r o u s ,
i n
f& t
i t
o ccu rs
w id ely
i n
n atu re,
an d
i s
u sed
a s
a
fo o d
p r e s e r v a tiv e .
H ow ever,
i t
d oes
n o t
p o ssess
th e
th erap eu tic
p ro p erties
(im m u n e
stim u lan t
an d
a n tic a r c in o ~ e n ic )
a s s o c ia t e d
w ith
b e n z a lc le h y d e .
A
m ore
s e r io u s
im p licatio n
o f
d e g r a d a tio n
i s
th a t
c h e m ic a l
c h a n g e
ca n
ren d er
e s s e n tia l
o ils
m ore
h azard ou s.
T erp en e
d e g r a d a tio n
i n
c e r t a in
o ils
le a d s
t o
co m p o u n d s
b e in g
form ed
\ v h ic h
m ake
th e
o ils
p o te n tia l
s k in
sen sitisers,
w h ile
fr e s h
o ils
a re
s a fe
t o
u se.
E x a m p le s
in c lu d e
te r e b in th
an d
a ll
p in e
o ils ;
th e
p rin cip a l
s e n s itis in g
a g e n t
i s
b e lie v e d
t o
b e
o x id is e d
d e lta -3 -c a r e n e
[P ir ili
&
S ilta n e n ,
1 9 5 7 ;
P ir ila
e t
a l.,
1 9 6 4 ;
O pd yke,
1 9 7 3 ;
O pd yke,
1 9 7 6 1 .
I n
t e s t s
u sin g
v a r io u s
u n d ilu te d
citru s
o ils
o n
1n o u se
s k in ,
o r a n g e ,
lim e,
le m o n
an d
g r a p e fr u it
o ils
w ere
a ll
b e e n
fo u n d
t o
p ro d u ce
tu m o u rs
a t
th e
s it e
o f
a p p lic a tio n
[R o e
8 c P ie r c e ,
1 9 6 0 ;
R o e ,
1 9 5 9 ;
P ie r c e ,
1 9 6 1 ;
R o e
&
F ie ld ,
1 9 6 5 1 .
I t
i s
im portant
t o
b e a r
i n
m in d
th a t
th ese
tu r n o u t-s
ap p ear
i n
m ice
w ho
h a v e
b e e n
p r im e d
w ith
a
c a n c e r
in itia to r ,
an d
th a t
th e
e s s e n tia l
o ils
d o
n o t
g iv e
r is e
t o
tu m o u rs
o n
th e ir
ow n.
Som e
o f
th e
tu m o u rs
p ro d u ced
w ere
m a lig n a n t,
an d
som e
w ere
b e n ig n .
I n
s e a r c h in g
fo r
th e
com ponent
o f
citru s
o ils
c a u s in g
th ese
tu m o u rs,
s u s p ic io n
fe ll
o n
d -lim o n e n e ,
an d
th ese
su sp icio n s
w ere
e v e n tu a lly
con f.irm ed .
H ow ever,
fu rth e r
r e s e a r c h
r e v e a le d
th a t
i t
w as
n o t
t l -
lim o n c n e
its e lf
w h ich
cau sed
th e
p r o b le m ,
bu t
c h e m ic a ls
fo r 1 n e c l
b v
th e
o x id a tio n
o f
d -lim o n e n e ,
w h ich
i s
a n
u n s ta b le
terp en c
[H o rn b u rg er
X c
B o g e r ,
1 9 6 8 1 ,
T h e
im p licatio n
o f
th is
i s
th a t
o n ly
o ld ,
o x id is e d
citru s
o ils
w o u ld
b e
c a p a b le
o f
c a u a i1 1 g
an )
p r o l~ ltm s .
P a r a d o x ic a lly ,
m ore
r c c c 1 1 t
r e s e a r c h
h as
d em onstrated
th a t
c l-
lim o n e n e
its e lf
i s
a n titu m o r a l,
a 1 1 d
p rev en ts
m a lig n a n t
tu m o u rs
i n
1 -o d e n ts
p r im e d
w ith
c a llc e 1
i
n
i
t
i
a
t
0
r
s
[H o m b u r g e r
e t
a l.,
1 9 7 1 ;
E le g b e d e
e t
a l.,
1 9 8 4 ;
E le g b e d e
e t
a l.,
1 9 8 6 ].
T h e
e a r l\
t e s t s ,
i t
i s
assu m ed ,
m ust
h a v e
a ll
u sed
o x id is e d
citru s
o ils
0 1
o x id is r d
lim o n r n e .
A lth o u g h
c v t !,,
o x id is c d
citru s
o ils
a re
y e ,-y
u 1 1 lik e ly
t o
p resen t
a
h a z a i-d
i n
arom atherapy,
th is
,% 3 e a r c t1
v e r y
1 n u c t1
u n d e r lin e s
th e
im p ortan ce
o f
u sin g
r e la tiv e ly
fr e s h
e s s e n tia l
o ils ,
w h ich
h a v e
n o t
o x id is e d .
I t
i s
recom m end ed
th a t,
i n
g e n e r a l,
e s s e n tia l
o ils
s h o u ld
b e
u sed
w ith in
I
y e a r
o f
p u rch a se,
o r
1 year
o f
fir s t
o p e n in g
th e
b o ttle .
T h e
b e s t
s in g le
w ay
t o
m axim ise
th e
u sefu l
life s p a n
o f
e s s e n tia l
o ils
i s
t o
sto re
th em
i n
a
co o l
p la c e ,
su ch
a s
a
r e fr ig e r a t o r .
O ils
k e p t
i n
th is
w ay
w ill
k e e p
fo r
r o u g h ly
tw ice
a s
lo n g ,
i.e .
2
y e a r s
fo llo w in g
p u rch a se.
E s s e n t ia l
o ils
w h ich
r e a d ily
d egrad e
s h o u ld
id e a lly
b e
u sed
w ith in
6
m o n th s
o f
p u rch a se,
o r
1 2
m o n th s
i f
k e p t
c o o l.
N o te
th a t
som e
e s s e n tia l
o ils ,
w h en
r e fr ig e r a te d ,
becom e
m ore
v is c o u s ,
an d
m ay
b e
d iffic u lt
t o
p o u r.
A n o th e r
u sefu l
w ay
t o
a v o id
d eg rad ed
o ils
i s
n ev er
t o
bu y
o ils
i n
c le a r
g la s s
b o ttle s .
L ig h t
r a y s
ca n
d am age
u n d ilu te d
o ils
(e s p e c ia lly
citru s
o ils
a g a in )
b y
c a u s in g
th e
fo r m a tio n
o f
fr e e
r a d ic a ls .
C o lo u r e d
g la s s
b o ttle s
g iv e
s u fficie n t
p ro te ctio n
a g a in s t
lig h t
r a y s
t o
p rev en t
th is
h a p p e n in g .
I
h a v e
h e a r d
arom atherap ists
s a y
th a t
o ils
o f
p a tc h o u li,
s a n d a lw o o d
an d
f1 -a n k in c e n s e
a re
a ll
b e s t
1 1 s e d
w h en
a g e d .
I n
th e
c a s e
o f
p a tc h o u li,
i t
i s
c e r ta in ly
tru e
th a t
a g e d
o ils
a re
som etim es
u sed
i n
p erfu m ery,
an d
th is
i s
t o
m ake
u se
o f
a
p a rticu la r
ty p e
o f
fra g ra n ce
n o te .
H ow ever,
1 am
n o t
aw are
o f
an y
r e a s o n
w hv
th is
w o u ld
b e
d e s ir a b le
i n
arom atherapy.
C e r ta in ly ,
p a tch o u li
o il
i s
terp en e-
r ic h ,
an d
i t
seen 1s
lik e ly
th a t
e ith e r
th e
c ffic a c )
o r
th e
s a fe ty
o f
th e
e s s e n tia l
o il
m ig h t
h c
a d v e r s e lv
a ffe c te d
th ro u g h
terp en e
o x id a tio n
o n
a g in g .
F o r
fr a n k in c e n s e
o il,
o x id a tio n
o f
p in e n e
i s
v ery
lik e ly
t o
le a d
t o
s a fe ty
p r o b le m s ,
an d
th is
o il
s h o u ld
c e r ta in ly
b c
r r s e d
a s
fr e s h
a s
p o s s ib le .
\ V ith
s a n d a lw o o d ,
a g e d
o ils
c e r ta in ly
d o
d eg rad e,
an d
fr e s h
o ils
w o u ld
h e
h ig h l!
d r s ir -a b le
fo r
th erap eu tic
u se.
T h e
r e le v a n c e
o f
t e s t s
o n
a n im a ls
i s
fr e q u e n tly
c a lle d
in to
q u e s tio n ,
n o t
le a s t
b y
to x ic o lo g is ts
th em selves.
H ow ever,
fo r
th o se
o f
u s
w ho
in s tin c tiv e ly
r e b e l
a g a in s t
th e
w h o le
n o tio n
o f
a n im a l
te stin g
th ere
i s
a
ten d en cy
fo r
e m o tio n
t o
c lo u d
th e
is s u e .
M ost
e s s e n tia l
o il
to x ic ity
te stin g
i s
c a r r ie d
ou t
u sin g
r a t s
o r
m ice,
an d
th ere
i s
o n e
m a _ jo r
p r o b le m
w ith
u sin g
to x ic ity
d a ta
o b ta in e d
i n
ro d en ts.
B o th
th e
s k in
an d
m e ta b o lis m
o f
ro d en ts
a re
d iffe r e n t
B A S ILO IL C H E M O T Y P E S
h ig h e s t
d o se
w h ich
w as
n o n -fa ta l
(2 4
m l)
th is
g iv e s
u s
a
hum an
le th a l
d o se
o f
betw een
0 .2 3
g/ kg
an d
0 .3 7
g/ kg,
a s s u m in g
th e
in d iv id u a ls
w ere
o f
a v e r a g e
w e ig h t.
T h is
com p ares
w ith
a n
L D ,,,
o f
1 .2
g/ kg
fo r
m e th y l
s a lic y la te
i n
ro d en ts;
4 -8
m l
o f
m e th y l
s a lic y la te
i s
c o n s id e r e d
a
le th a l
d o se
fo r
a
c h ild
[O p d y k e ,
1 9 7 8 1 .
I f
th ese
fig u r e s
d o
rep resen t
r e a lity ,
th is
m eans
th a t
w in tergreen
o il
i s
th ree
t o
fiv e
tim es
m ore
to x ic
i n
hum ans
th a n
i t
i s
i n
ro d en ts.
W intergreen
i s
a
u sefu l
o il
t o
m ake
c o m p a r is o n s
w ith ,
b e c a u s e
th ere
a re
m any
reco rd ed
c a s e s
o f
t o
th o se
o f
hum ans.
T h e r e fo r e ,
th e
resu lts
o b ta in e d
b y
a n im a l
te stin g ,
w h ile
o fte n
h a v in g
c o n s id e r a b le
r e le v a n c e ,
c a n n o t
b e
assu 1n ed
t o
r e lia b ly
in d ic a te
th e
resu lts
w h ich
hum an
te stin g
w o u ld
g iv e .
I t
i s
in terestin g
t o
com p are
ro d en t
to x ic ity
d a ta
w ith
c a s e s
o f
p o is o n in g
i n
hum ans.
C o m p a r is o n
in d ica te s
th a t,
i n
som e
in sta n ces,
ro d en t
to x ic ity
d a ta
g iv e
a
p o o r
in d ic a tio n
o f
hum an
to x ic ity
(ta b le
3 ).
W intergreen
T a k in g
s ix
c a s e s
o f
w in te r -g r e e n
o il
p o is o n in g
i n
a d u lt
hum ans,
th ree
p e o p le
d ie d
fr o m
in g e s tio n
o f
1 .5
m l,
3 0
m l
an d
8 0
m l
r e s p e c tiv e ly ;
th ree
s u r v iv e d
a fte r
in g e s tin g
6
m l,
1 6
m l
an d
2 4
m l
[Stev en so n ,
1 9 3 7 1 .
N one
o f
th ese
c a s e s
r e c e iv e d
an v
m e d ic a l
in te r v e n tio n .
I f
w e
ta k e
th e
lo w e s t
d o s :e
w h ich
w as
fa ta l
(1 5
m l)
an d
th e
p o is o n in g
t o
d raw
o n
com p ared
t o
o th e r
e s s e n tia l
o ils ,
an d
b e c a u s e
c h e m ic a l
v a r ia tio n
betw een
d iffe r e n t
w in tergreen
o ils
i s
m in im al.
T h e
v a r ia tio n
i n
to x ic ity
s e e n
betw een
th e
c a s e s
c it e d
a b o v e
m ay
b e
d u e
t o
d iffe r e n c e s
i n
b o d y
w e ig h t
and / or
d iffe r e n c e s
i n
in d iv id u a l
h e a lth
sta tu s.
F o u r
o f
th e
c a s e s
c it e d
w ere
betw een
2 1
an d
2 8
y e a r s
o ld ,
o n e
w as
5 5 ,
an d
o n e
w as
a d u lt,
a g e
unknow n.
E u ca ly p tu s
E u ca ly p tu s
o il
seem s
t o
b e
fa ta l
t o
hum ans
i n
a m o u n ts
betw een
3 0
m l
an d
6 0
m l
[G u rr
an d
S c r o g g ie ,
1 9 6 5 1 .
I f
tru e,
th is
w o u ld
m ake
i t
som e
S -6
tim es
1n o re
to x ic
i n
hum ans
th a n
i n
la b o r a to r y
a n im a ls .
P e n n y r o y a l
R IF M
g iv e
th e
ra t
o r a l
L D ,,,
fo r
p e n n y r o y a l
o il
a s
0 .4
g/ kg
[O p d y k e ,
1 9 7 4 1
e q u iv a le n t
t o
a b o u t
3 0
g
(o r
3 5
m l)
i n
a n
a d u lt.
I n
tw o
c a s e s
o n e
flu id
o u n ce
(a b o u t
3 0
m l)
o f
p e n n y r o y a l
o il
p ro d u ced
a
fa ta l
o u tco m e
w h en
in g e s te d
h y
a n
a d u lt
[A llen ,
1 8 9 7 ;
A n o n .,
1 9 7 8 1 .
I n
th ree
c a s e s
h a lf
th e
am ount
o f
in g e s te d
p e n n y r o y a l
o il
(1 5
m l)
p ro d u ced
sym ptom s
0 1
p o is o n in g ,
bu t
1 1 o t
d e a th
[B r a ith w a ite ,
1 9 0 6 ;
Jo n e s ,
1 9 1 3 ;
Bu ech el
e t
a l.,
1 9 X 3 ].
I n
th e
c a s e
o f
p e n n y r o y a l
th e
a n im a l
d a ta
s e e m
t o
c o r r e la t e
w ell
w ith
hum an
to x ic ity .

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