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essential oil safety ii ; metabolism, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity

essential oil safety ii ; metabolism, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity

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02/01/2013

E S S E N T IA L
O IL
S A F E T Y
M E T A B O L IS M ,
N E U R O T O X IC IT Y ,
R E P R O D U C T IV E
T O X IC IT Y
R O B E R T
T IS S E R A N D
I I
I
n
P a r t
O ne
1
o u tlin e d
th e
im p ortan ce
o f
u n d ersta n d in g
e s s e n tia l
o il
c o m p o s itio n ;
h o w
th e
c h e m ic a l
d e g r a d a tio n
o f
e s s e n tia l
o ils
co u ld
h a v e
s a fe ty
im p licatio n s,
an d
I
com p arrd
d a ta
o n
h u r r la n
an d
a n im a l
to x ic ity .
P a r t
\u2018liv e
e x p lo r e s
som e
o f
th e
is s u e s
r -e la tin g
th e
m e la b o lis m
0 1
e s s e n tia l
o ils
w ith
th e ii-
s a fe ty ,
p o te n tia l
d a n g e r s
r e la tin g
t o
n e u r o to x ic ity ,
an d
Ih r
v e r y
d iffir u lr
q u e s tio n
o f
r-ep ro d u ctiv e
to x ic ity .
I
T h e secon d
of a
threepart series based on
a presen tation
g iv en
a t
A rom n
\u20189 5 .
T h e fu ll
tra n scrip t
is p u b lis h ed
i n
th e
C o n fe re n c e
P roceed in g s. P a rt
T h ree w ill a p p ea r
i n
th en e x t
is s u e .
\u2018I\u2019h e
fa te
of essential
o ils
o n ce
th e y
h a v e
e n te r e d
th e
b o d y
i s
c o m p le x ,
fo r
tw o
r e a s o n s .
F ir s tly ,
b e c a u s e
e a c h
com ponent
h as
a
sep arate
fa te ,
an d
s o
i t
1 1 0
lo n g e r
m akes
sen se
t o
sp eak
o f
th e
w h o le
o il,
o n e
m ust
t r a c e
th e
d estin y
of each
o n e
o f th e
h u n d red s
o f
co m p o n en ts.
Srco n d ty ,
a
ty p ica l
e s s e n tia l
o il
com ponent
w ill
b e
m etabotiscd ,
i.e .
ch em ically
c h a n g e d
w h ile
i n
th e
b o d y ,
an d
i n
som e
c a s e s
i t
w ill
u n d erg o
m ore
th a n
o n e
su ch
c h a n g e .
Som e
e s s e n tia l
o il c o m p o n e n ls
a r e
m e ta b o lis e d
i n
th e
s k in ,
b u t
th e
g r e a t
m ajority
o f
m e ta b o lic
c h a n g e
ta k e s
p la c e
i n
th e
liv e r .
R o u te s
o f
ad m in istration
T h e
m e ta b o lis m
o f
e s s e n tia l
o il
com ponents
m ay
v a r y
a cco rd in g
t o
th e
ro u te
o f a d m in is tr a tio n
e m p lo y e d .
O ral
ad m in istration
n o t
d a n g e r o u s
p er
s e ,
b e c a u s e
i t
d oes
d ep en d
o n
q tr a n tity .
M ost
e s s e n tia l
o ils
a r e
i n
fa c t
con su m ed
i n
th e
fo rm
o f
fo o d
fla v o l:r in g s ,
b u t
a t
r e la tiv e ly
lo w
d o ses
com p ared
t o
th o se
u sed
i n
arom atherapy.
T h e
r is k
i s
v e r y
m uch
g r e a te r
th a n
w ith
d rrm al
d o s a g :r ,
e s p e c ia lly
as there
is a
I-isk of acciclcntal
o v e r d o s a g e
w h ich
d o ts
n o t
a p p ly
t o
d erm al
a d m in is tl-a tio n .
A lso ,
i n
th e
a m o u n ts
n o r m a lly
g iv e n
i n
o r a l
d o s a g e ,
som e
IO -20
tim es
a s
m r lc h
e s s e n tia l
o il
w ill en ter
th e
b lo o d s tr e a m
com p ared
t o
d crm al
ad m in istration .
E x c r e tio n
E s s e n t ia l
o ils
n o r m a lly
ta k e
betw een
o rie
an d
fiv e
d a y s
t o
b e
e lim in a te d
(T a b le
1 ).
T h e r e fo r e ,
i f
ta k e n
o r a lly
o n
a
d a ily
b a s is ,
som e
b lC ld -u p
i n
th e
b o d y
w o u ld
b e
exp ected .
T h is
i s
e v id e n c e d
b y
th e
p resen ce
o f
a p io l
i n
th e
u r in e
o f
a
p e r s o n
w ho
in g e s te d
la r g e
am ounts,
1 2
d a y s
a fte r
th e ir
la s t
d o se
[D \u2019A p rile ,
1 9 2 8
I.
T h is
b u ild -u p
i n
th e
b o d y
m ay
b e
g o o d
i n
m any
in s t a n c e s ,
b u t
i t
a ls o
g iv e s
fu rth e r
w e ig h t
t o
th e
n o tio n
th a t
o r a l
d o s in g ,
w h ile
it can
b e
p o w erfu lly
th era p eu tic,
ca n
a ls o
b e
d a n g e r o u s .
I n
s e v e r a l
c a s t s
o f fa ta l
p o is o n in g
i t
w as
n o t
u n til
th e
s e c o n d
o r
th ird
d o se
th a t
d e a th
en su ed .
A
\u2018L -y e a r -o ld
c h ild
w as
g iv e n
e ig h t
d ro p s
o f
w orm seed
o il,
fo llo w e d
b y
a
sim ila r
d o se
o n e
w eek
la te r
[W o lf,
1 9 3 5 1 .
T h e
s e c o n d
d o se
p r o v e d
fd ta l.
A
g ir l
o f
1 9
m o n th s
d ie d
a f \u2019t e r
th ree
o n e -d r o p
d o ses
of w orm seed
o il,
1 2
h o u rs
ap art
[& ii
L o o k e r e n ,
1 9 3 9 1 .
T h e
lo w e s t
reco rd ed
fa ta l
d o se
o f
a p io l
i s
0 .8
g ,
w h ich
w ds
ta k e n
d a ily
fo r
1 4
d a y s
[Low enstein
an d
B a lle w ,
1 9 5 8 1 .
T h ere
is little
d ou bt
th a t,
if o n ly
a s in g le
d o se
h ad
b e e n
ta k e n ,
a ll
th ree
p e o p le
w o u ld
h a v e
s u r v iv e d .
T o x ic ity
ca n
a ffe c t
o n e ,
or several
orgm s,
an d
th is
i s
som etim es
a
p o in t
o f
d iffe r e n c e
betw een
sp ecies.
T a b le
2
l i s t s
h o w
th ese
\u201c sp e cific
o r g a n \u201d
to x ic itie s
a r e
n o r m a lly
la b e lle d .
A
n e u r o to x ic
su b sta n ce
i s
o n e
w h ich
h as
a
to x ic
o r
d estru ctiv e
e ffe c t
o n
n e r v o u s
tissu e.
E s s e n t ia l
o ils
a r e
o n ly
lik e ly
t o
ca u se
s e r io u s
p h y s ic a l
d am age
t o
n e r v o u s
tissu e
i n
fa ta l
o r
n e a r -fa ta l
c a s e s
o f
p o is o n in g
[W o lf,
1 9 3 5 1 .
A
m ore
com m on
r e s u lt
o f
n e u r o to x ic ity
i s
c o n v u ls io n s ,
an d
o n e
o f
rh e
m ost
p o te n t
c o n v u ls a n t
e s s e n tia l
o ils
i s
h y sso p .
H yssop
oil is p ow erfu lly
n e u r o to x ic ,
an d
th ere
a r e
s e v e r a l
c a s e s
o f in g e s tio n
o f th e
o il
b y
hum ans
resu ltin g
i n
e p ile p tifo r m
s e iL u I-e s .
H Y=P
H yssop
i s
c o n v u ls a n t
b e c a u s e
o f
it s
p in o r a m p h o n r
(4 0 % )
an d
is o -p in o c a m p h o n c
(3 0 % )
co n te n t.
T h e
c o Ilv L r ls a Ilt
asthm a.
D u r in g
o n e
s e v e r e
a tta ck ,
h e
w ils
g iv e n
\u2018h a lf
a
c o ffe e
s p o o n \u2019
(p e r h a p s
1 5 -2 0
d ro p s?)
sh o rtly
a fte r
w h ich
h e
s u ffe r e d
a
c o n v u ls io n .
H e
fu lly
r e c o v e r e d
a fte r
3 days
i n
h o s p ita l.
T h e
s e c o n d
c a s e ,
a n
l& y e a r -o ld
g ir l,
d ran k
3 0
d ro p s
o f
h y sso p
o il
t o
tr e a t
a
co ld .
O ne
h o u r
la te r
sh e
s u d d e n ly
lo s t
co n scio u sn ess
fo r
1 0
m in u tes,
d u r in g
w h ich
sh e
s u ffe r e d
g e n e r a iis e
d
co n tra ctio n s
an d
b it
h e1
to n g u e .
I n
th e
th ird
c a s e
a
2 6 -y e a r -o ld
w om an
to o k
1 0
d ro p s
o f
h y sso p
o il
o n
e a c h
o f
2
co n secu tiv e
d a y s ,
an d
s u ffe r e d
a
s e iz u r e
o n
th e
s e c o n d
d ay
[M illet,
1 9 X 1 ].
(H ere
w e
s e e
a n o th e r
in sta n ce
o f c u m u la tiv e
o r a l
d o s in g .)
I n
th e
c a s e
o f
h y sso p
o il
w e
ca n
s e e ,
fir s tly ,
co n sisten cy
betw een
a n im a l
e ffe c ts
o f h y sso p
o il w e r e
fir s t
r e s e a r c h e d
i n
1 8 9 1 .
D oses
o f
2 .5
m g/ kg
w err
in jected
in to
d o g s,
p r o d u c in g
a lm o s t
im m ed iate
e p ile p tifo r m
s e iz u l-e s
[< :a d C a c
an d
M e u n ie r ,
1 8 9 1 1 .
T e s t s
i n
rats fou nd
th a t
c o n v u ls io n s
ap p eared
fo r
h y sso p
o il, a t d o s e
le v e ls
o v e r
0 .1 3
g/ kg;
in trd p erito n eai
p in o c a m p h o n e
w as
fo u n d
t o
b e
c o n v u ls a n t
an d
le th a l
t o
r a t s
a b o v e
0 .0 5
m l/ k g
[M illet,
1 9 8 1 ;
M illet
e t
a l.,
1 9 7 9 1 .
B o th
p in o c a m p h o n e
an d
h y sso p
o il a r c
p o te n tia lly
c o n v u ls a n t
an d
n e u r o to x ic
t o
la b o r a to r y
a n im a ls
[M illet
e t a l.,
1 9 8 0 ].
T h e
a m o u n ts
o f h y sso p
o il
u srd
i n
th ese
a n im a l
r e s t s
w ere
g e n e r a lly
h ig h .
H ow ever,
th ere
a r e
th ree
r e p o r t e d
c a s e s
o f
lo w -d o s e
h y sso p
o il
in g e s tio n
resu ltin g
i n
e p ile p tifo r m
c o n v u ls io n s
[A rd itti
e t
a l.,
1 9 7 8 1 .
T h e
fir s t
c a s e
w as
a
G -y e a r -o ld
w hose
m other
fr e q u e n tly
g a v e
h im
2 -3
d ro p s
o f h y sso p
o il fo r
h is
p o tc n \u2019ia i
r is k
t o
th o se
w ith
a
lo w
c o n v u ls iv e
th resh o ld ,
i.e .
a
p o te n tia l
I O
h a v e
e p ile p s y
w h ich
h as
n o t
y e t
d e c la r e d
i t s e l f .
T h is
g ro u p
co u ld
b e
a s
h ig h
a s
5 %
o f
th e
p o p u la tio n
[D r
T im
B e tts ,
p r iv a te
com m unication].
Becau se
o f
th e
lo w e r
lr v e ls
u sed ,
e x te r r r a l
u se
is m u ch
less of a risk, A
1 9 6 7
r e v ie w
o f o lfa c to r y
stim u latio n
o f s e iz u r e s
i n
e p ile p tics
c o n c lu d e d
th a t,
\u2018R e fle x
e p ile p s y
cau sed
by scent
i n
th e
n arrow est
sen se
o f
th e
w ord
is v e r y
u n co m m o n .
I t
d ep en d s
o n
th e
d e g r e e
of oversensitivity
o f
th e
in d iv id u a l
t o
o lfa c to r y
stim u li\u2019
(tr a n s la tio n
fro m
th e
o r ig in a l
G erm an)
[N e d b a l,
1 9 6 7 1 .
I t
i s
v e r y
u n lik e ly
th a t
th e
e x te r n a l
u se
o f
e s s e n tia l
o ils
w 0 ~ ild
le a d
t o
e p ile p tifo r m
s e iz u r e s ,
o th e r
th an
fro m
a
h a n d fu l
o f
e s s e n tia l
o ils ,
in c lu d in g
h y sso p .
K e to n e s
E s s e n t ia l
o ils
m ost
stro n g ly
im p licated
a s
b e in g
co n trd in d ica te d
i n
e p ile p s y
an d
fe v e r
a r e
th o se
r ic h
i n
artem isia
k e to n e ,
p in o c a m p h o n e ,
cam phor,
th u jo n e
o r
p u le g o n e .
I t
i s
n o ta b le
th a t
e a c h
o n e
o f
th rsr
com ponents
is a k e to n e .
Som e
c o n s id e r
k e to n e s
i n
g e n e r a l
to be
h ig h ly
stim u lan t
to x ic ity
an d
hum an
to x ic ity .
S e c o n d ly ,
th e
m a jo r
com ponents
o f
th e
o il,
p in o c a m p h o n e
an d
is o -p in o c a lr lp h o lie ,
s e e m
t o
b e
c le a r ly
r e s p o n s ib le
fo r
th e
n cu ro to x ic
a ctio n
o f th e
o il.
T h e
r is k s
I n
th e
o n ly
reco rd ed
cases w here
s e iz u r e s
h a v e
b e e n
in d u c e d
by essential
oils, m ost
of them
ap p aren tly
i n
n o n -e p ile p tics ,
th e
o ils
w ere
ta k e n
o r a lly .
H yssop
o il
m ost
d e fin itciy
rep resen ts
a
s e r io u s
r is k ,
an d
h as
th e
p o te n tia l
t o
rd u sr
rp iie p tifo rm
s e iz u r e s
a t
o r a l
d o s a g e
le v e ls .
T h is
p r o b a b ly
IIIcm s
th a t
e v e n
d crm al
ad m in istration
o f
h y sso p
o il
s h o u ld
b e
a v o id e d
i n
th o se
v u ln e r a b le
t o
s e iz u r e s .
T h e
m +jority
o f
p e o p le
w ith
e p ile p s y
ta k e
m ed ication
t o
su p p ress
th e ir
f it s .
I t
i s
u n lik e ly
th a t
th is
g ro u p
w o u ld
b e
an y
m ore
a t
r is k
th a n
th e
g e n e r a l
p o p u la tio n .
H ow ever,
th ere
is a
t o
th e
C N S,
an d
t h e r e fo r e
a r is k
t o
th o se
p ro n e
t o
e p ile p s y
[Franchom m e
an d
E n iie l,
1 9 9 0 1 .
H ow ever,
th ere
i s
n o
r e a s o n
to b e lie v e
that essential
oils rich
i n
o th e r
k r to n e s
p resen t
an y
d a n g e r
i n
e p ile p s y .
W h ile
i t
m dy
b e
tru e
th a t
a ll
co n v u lsa n ts
fo u n d
i n
e s s e n tia l
o ils
a r e
k e to n e s ,
it d o e s
n o t n e c e s s a r ily
fo llo w
th a t
a ll
k e to n e s
fo u n d
i n
e s s e n tia l
o ils
a r e
co n v u lsa n ts
(s e e
ta b le
3 ).
T h ere
is v e r y g o o d
e v id e n c e
th a t
e s s e n tia l
o il
com ponents
i n
g e n e r a l
a r e
a b le
t o
c r o s s
th e
p lacen ta
an d
r e a c h
th e
fe tu s
i n
a
hum an
p r e g n a n cy .
C r o s s in g
th e
p lacen ta
d oes
n o t
n e c c s s a r iiy
m ean
th a t
th ere
is a risk
of toxicity
t o
th e
fe tu s;
th is
w ill
d ep en d
o n
th e
to x ic ity
an d
th e
p lasm a
co n ce n tra tio n
o f
th e
r o In p O u Ild .
P a r s le y
p rep aration s
m ade
fro m
p a r s le y
h a v e
tIe e n
u sed
t o
p ro cu re
a b o r tio n
fo r
a
g r e a t
m m y
y e a r s ,
an d
a r e
s t i l l
i n
u se
to d a y ,
n o ta b ly
i n
Ita ly .
A p io l,
a
m a jo t
com ponent
o f
m ost
p a r s le y
le a f
an d
s e e d
o ils ,
is g e n e r a lly
h e ld
t o
b e
r e s p o n s ib le
fo r
th e
a b o r t if r t c ie n t
a ctio n
o f
p a r s le y ,
an d
i s
a ls o
u sed
i n
it s
ow n
r ig h t
a s
a n
a b o r titid c ie n t.
D ata
i s
o fte n
d iffic u lt
t o
o b ld in ,
p a I-tly
b e c a u s e
o f
th e
le g a l
im p lic a tio n s
o f
p a tie n ts
a d m ittin g
t o
ille g a l
a b o r tio n ,
an d
p a rtly
b e c a u s e
i n
som e
c a s e s
d e a th
fo llo w s
a b o r tio n ,
an d
th ere
i s
n o
r e c o r d
o f
h o w
m uch
a p io l
w as
ta k e n .
N a tu r a lly ,
th e
c a s e s
w h ich
h a v e
b e e n
rrc o rd e d
te n d
t o
h c
th e
w orst
o n e s ,
i n
w h irh
m e d ic a l
in te rv e n tio n
h as
b e e n
u rg en tly
so u g h t.
O lit
o f fiv e
c a s e s
Ii-o m
Ita ly ,
a ll o f w h o m
w ere
betw een
2 and
7
m o n th s
p rrg n a n t,
o n r
a b o r te d
an d
la te r
d ie d ,
o n e
d id
n o t
a b o r t
b u t
d ie d ,
an d
th ree
a b o r te d
an d
s u r v iv e d
[D \u2019A p rile ,
1 9 2 X ]
In
th e
c a s e
w h ich
d id
n o t
a b o rt,
th e
fe tu s
w as
fo u n d
t o
h r
d ead .
P o st-
a b o r tiv e .
v a g in a l
h lr r d in g ,
som etim es
p ro fu se,
i s
a
fe a tu r e
o f
th ese
c a s e s .
A
cu m lllativ r
c ffc c t
i s
ap p aren t,
a p io l
b e in g
ta k e n
d a ily
fo r
betw een
3
an d
8
d a y 5
h e fo r e
e ith e r
d e a th
o r
a b o r tio n
en su ed .
O ne
o f
th e
c a s e s
c it e d
h ad
t r a c e s
o f a p io l
i n
h er
u r in e
1 2 d a y s a fte r
th e
la s t
in g e s tio n .
T h e
lo w e s t
to ta l
d o se
o f
a p io l
w h ic h
in d u crd
a b o r tio n
w a s 0 .9
g
td k e n
fo r
8
co n secu tiv e
d a y s .
T h is
i s
a p p r o x im a te ly
e q u iv a le n t
t o
6
m l
o f
p a r s le y
leaf oil, hrtw ecn
1 .5
m l and
6
m l
o f p a r s le y s e e d
o il,
o r
5
m l
o f In d ia n
d ill
o il.
T h e
in e v iita b le
c o n c lu s io n
i s
th a t
a ll
of these
a p io l-r ic h
e s s e n tia l
o ils
p resen t
a
v e r y
h ig h
r is k
o f a b o r tio n
if ta k e n
i n
o r a l
d o ses,
an d
th a t
e x te l-n a l
m e
wo u l d
a ls o
S C C IT I
in a d v is a b le
i n
p r e g n a n cy .
I n
a n im a l
stu d ies,
c o n s id e r a b ly
h ig h e r
d o s a g e s
o f
a p io l
ap p ear
t o
h e
to le r a te d .
I n
p re g n a n t
g u in e a
p ig s ,
a b o r tio n
g e n e r a lly
d id
n o t
o ccu r
excep t
a t
le th a l
d o ses,
a r o u n d
2
g
ID \u2019A p tile ,
1 9 2 8 1 .
I n
p re g n a n t
ra b b its,
a b o r tio n
o ccu rred
at dosages
o f5 1 4
g , w ith
s e v e r e
haem orrhage
[P a to ir
e t
a l.,
1 9 3 6 1 .
I n
b o th
ty p e s
o f
a n im a l,
th e
d o s a g e
i s
e q u iv a le n t
to a p p r o x im a te ly
1 0 0 -2 0 0
g in
a hum an.
T h is
is som e
2M 0
tim es
h ig h r r
o f
ju n ip e r
b e r r ie s
h a v e
a
s ig n ific a n t
a n t i f e r t i l i t y
e ffe c t
i n
r a t s
[A g r a w a l
e t a l.,
1 9 8 0 ;
P I-a k a s h
e t
a l.,
1 9 8 5 1 .
A n
e th a n o lic
e x tr a c t
o fju n ip e r
b e r r ie s
w as
fo u n d
t o
d em on strate
b o th
a n
e a r ly
an d
a
la te
a b o r tifa c ie n t
a c tiv ity
i n
r a t s
[A g r d w a l
e t
a l.,
1 9 8 0 1 .
th a n
rh c
am ount
o f-
a p io l
c a u s in g
a b o r tio n
i n
h u ma n s ,
an d
h ig h lig h ts
th e
p o o r
c o r r e la t io n
bctw ccn
a n im a ls
an d
hum ans
i n
th is
ar r r r
Ju n ip e r
Ju n ip e r
h as
frcq u cn tly
b e e n
lla g g e d
a s
b e in g
c o n t r a in d ic a t e d
i n
p reg n a n cy
[A n o n .,
1 9 3 4 ;
I ,i s t
an d
H iirh am m cr,
1 9 7 6 ;
A n o n .,
1 9 8 3 ;
D u ke,
1 9 8 5 ;
C h a n d le r ,
1 9 8 6 ;
C z y g a n ,
1 9 8 7 ;
D e
Sm et
e t
a 1 .,1 9 9 3 ].
A
v ig o r o u s
attem p t
w as
m ade
t o
t r a c e
th e
so u rce
o f
th ese
co n tra in d ica tio n s.
T h ere
i s
e v id e n c e
th a t
ju n ip e r
b e r r ie s
a r e
a b o r tifa c ie n t,
b u t
th ere
i s
n o
e v id e n c e
th a t
ju n ip e r
o il
i s
r e s p o n s ib le
fo r
th is
e ffe c t.
M ost
o f
th e
a b o v e
r e fe r e n c e d
so u rces
r e fe r
t o
\u2018& n ip e r \u2019
g e n e r ic a lly ,
w ith o u t
s p e c ify in g
a
p a rticu la r
p rep aration .
N one
o f
th e m
r e fe r s
t o
w hat
seem s
t o
b c
th e
o n ly
scie n tific
b a s is
fo r
th e
a b o r tifa c ie n t
a c tiv ity
o f
ju n ip e r .
E th a n o lic
an d
a c e to n e
e x tr r r r ts
A n
e th a n o lic
e x tr a c t
w o u ld
co n ta in
som e
e s s e n tia l
o il,
b u t
th ere
i s
n o
eh d en ce
th a t
th e
e s s e n tia l
o il
i s
r e s p o n s ib le
fo r
th ese
e ffe c ts .
S in c e
th e
o il
co n stitu te s
o n ly
som e
1 .5 %
o f
th e
r a w
m a te r ia l,
an d
s in c e
a ll
th e
m a jo r
com ponents
o f
th e
e s s e n tia l
o il
a r e
ap p aren tly
n o m
to x ic,
i t
seem s
in c o n c e iv a b le
th a t
ju n ip e r
o il
co u ld
h e
r e s p o n s ib le
fo r
rh e
rep ro d u ctiv e
to x ic ity
n o te d
a b o v e .
N u tm eg
o il,
w h ich
i s
ap p aren tly
r lo n -a ~ )o r tifa c ic n t,
co n ta in s
n L @ fl-p in e n e ,
m yrccn e,
/ / & cc-p in cn c,
te r p in e n -4 -0 1 .
s a b in e n e
an d
tim o n e n e
(s e e
td b lc
4 ).
T h ese
S>I , I , ?
com ponents
co n stitu te
so n 1 e
7 3 %
o f
ju n ip e r
o il.
T h r
ad m in istration
o f
t t p
t o
0 .5 6
g/ kg
01. n u tm eg
o il
t o
p re g n a n t
ro d en ts
fo r
1 0
co n secu tiv e
d a y s
h ad
n o
e ffe c t
o n
n id a tio n
o r
o n
m aternal
o r
fe ta l
s u r v iv a l;
n o
te r a to g e n ic
e ffe c t
w as
o b s e r v e d
[N T IS
1 9 7 2 ,
c it e d
i n
O pdyke,
1 9 7 6 1 .
M yrcen r
sh ow ed
n o
rep ro d u ctiv e
to x ic ity
w hen
t e s t e d
o n
p re g n a n t
rd b
a t
2 5 0
m g/ kg,
w h ich
i s
e q u iv a le n t
t o
a
hum an
d o se
o f
1 3 5
g
o f
ju n ip e r
o il
[D e lg a d o
e t a l.,
1 9 9 3 1 .
N u tm eg
o il
i s
ap p aren tly
n o n -
a b o r tifa c ie n t,
s o
it s e e m s
u n lik e ly
th a t
ju n ip e r
o il
co u ld
b e .
T h ere
a r e
tw o
lik e ly
r e a s o n s
w hy
ju n ip e r
o il
a c q u ir e d
a
\u2018ta in te d \u2019
re p u td tio n ,
w h ich
h as
s in c e
b e e n
q u o te d
an d
r e -q u o te d .
F ir s tly ,
th ere
h as
u n d o u b te d ly
b e e n
som e
co n fu sio n
betw een
ju n ip e r
(/ u n $~ ru s
com m vni.r)
an d
s a v in
(J u n ip m u
s a h in a ).
O ner e s e a r c h
p ap er,
p u b lis h e d
i n
1 9 2 8 ,
h as
th e
s u b -h e a d in g :
\u2018E m m e n a g o g u e
O ils
(P e n n y r o y a ),
T a n s y
an d
Ju n ip e r )\u2018.
I n
th e
b o d y
o f
th e
te x t
i t
la te r
s t a t e s :
\u2018T h e
p o p u la r
id e a
h as
a lw a y s
b e e n
th a t
p e n n y r o y a l,

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