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Cultural and Media Policy Essay

Cultural and Media Policy Essay

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How have debates surrounding media ownership and political influence changed in an era of globalization?
How have debates surrounding media ownership and political influence changed in an era of globalization?

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Published by: Musaab Mohamed Adam Osman on Apr 29, 2010
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Musaab Mohamed Adam30581155Mss. Doris Limcultural and media policySituating cultural policy essay 1
How have debates surrounding media ownership and political influencechanged in an era of globalization? This paper will examine the role of governments in regulating mediaownership and address elements that contribute to the ever changingbalance of media ownership concentration and its political influence in thisera of media globalization. Laws and regulations that govern foreign andcross-ownership of media are dynamically shifting for a number of reasonsthat include financial interests, protecting the public, promoting nationalculture or even resisting cultural imperialism. Central to understandingelements that influence media ownership is to understanding the politicalenvironments in which they operate. This becomes evident when weconceder the drastic contrast between media in democratic societies andthose in oppressive nations, according to Croteau & Hoynes (2000) “statecontrol of the mass media is a routine element of totalitarian systems”(p.77).In this era of globalization, policies and regulations effecting mediaownership are rapidly transforming to complement the impact of mediaglobalization upon society and national cultures. As mentioned by Croteau &Hoynes (2000), ”the globalization of mass media, refers to the content, thecultural products available globally in addition to the exchange andintermingling of cultures from different parts of the globe”(p.332). Howeverthe volume, scale of media merging and alliances involving media playersthat have taken place in recent years has raised considerable challenges for
 
Musaab Mohamed Adam30581155Mss. Doris Limcultural and media policySituating cultural policy essay 1
regulators and state authorities across the globe (Doyle, 2002, p. 1).Furthermore the case of deregulation in cross-ownership of media is usuallyexplained in terms of a need to allow domestic players to exploit importantnew economic and technological opportunities ahead of international rivals(Doyle, 2002, p. 1).Finally this paper will address the profound socio-political and culturalconsequences of permitting or preventing cross-media ownership andconcentration of large media conglomerates, besides exploring someeconomic policy issues associated with concentration of ownership.
Policies:
 
the instrument for media regulation
Policy makers worldwide employ an arsenal of regulation instruments topromote plurality in media content. In relation to broadcasting policy-making, it was argued that many countries often put the principle of ‘perceived viewer welfare’ ahead of the principle of press freedom (Doyle,2002, p. 28). However, to maintain this viewer welfare by means of mediapluralism, systems have promoted laws and regulations which diversifiedownership of the media. Hence preventing any supplier from having absolutecontrol over the agenda and will therefore reduce the scope for potentiallydangerous abuses of public or political influence (Doyle, 2002, p. 28).On the other hand, diversity of content in print media is subject to separatemeasures, mainly aimed at separating ownership from editorial control, asmentioned by Doyle (2002, p. 29). “Many European countries, including
 
Musaab Mohamed Adam30581155Mss. Doris Limcultural and media policySituating cultural policy essay 1
Norway, Portugal and the Netherlands, use ‘editorial agreements’ to achievesuch a separation, these agreements involve a written statement whichguarantees the rights of editors to shape the content of their products freefrom interference by media owners” (Doyle, 2002, p.29).As mentioned by Flew “media policy has been central to the development of media in all of its forms, government policy institutions regulate theownership of media, production and distribution of media” (2007, p.171).According to Craik (1996), in recent years international trends in regulatingmedia ownership have dramatically shifted, (p, 178). In response to culturaland economic globalization and the adoption of micro-economic reformagendas by most governments, basically the aim is to enhance nationalintegration, increase competition and international competitiveness and toremove impediments to growth (Craik,1996,p.185). Furthermore, at anational and international level these rapid changes in policy are to beattributed to the digitization and convergence of technology and theglobalization of media and broadcasting technologies. However, policyreforms were utilized as a counter measure for American cultural imperialismand global domination (Craik, 1996, p. 185).
Singapore and media ownership
As globalization transformed our world into a village, access to media andinformation became relatively simple, which made media gate keepers

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