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Acute Heart Failure

Acute Heart Failure

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Published by kpc959

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Published by: kpc959 on Apr 29, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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06/10/2014

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MEDICINEPROJECTBARAD AJAYRAJ BATCH
 
CONTENTS1.
 
INTRODUCTION2.
 
CLASSIFICATION3.
 
CAUSES AND PRECIPITATING FACTORS4.
 
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY5.
 
SYMPTOMS6.
 
SIGNS7.
 
DIAGNOSIS8.
 
TREATMENT
 
 
INTRODUCTION
y
 
Heart failure is a global term for the physiological state in which cardiac output isinsufficient for the bodys needs.
y
 
T
his occurs when1.
 
Cardiac output
¾
 2.
 
B
odys O
2
& nutrition requirement
½
,
 
T
ermed high output cardiac failure.
y
 
F
luid overload is a common problem.
y
 
A
cute H
F:
rapid onsetChronic H
F:
of longer duration
CLASSIFICATION
T
here are different ways to classify the heart failure1.
 
A
ccording to side of heartRt. vs Lt. heart failure2.
 
A
ccording to abnormality in the contraction or relaxationSystolic vs. diastolic dysfunction3.
 
½
ed venous back pressure
:
backward failure
F
ailure to supply adequate arterial perfusion
:
forward failure4.
 
¾
c.o. &
½
systemic vascular resistance
:
low output failure
½
c.o. &
¾
systemic vascular resistance
:
high output failure5.
 
NY
H
A(
NEW
 
Y
ORK H
E
A
R
T
 
A
SSOSSI
AT
IO
N)
functional classification
y
 
Class I
:
no limitation is experienced in any activities; there are nosymptoms from ordinary activities.
y
 
Class II
:
slight
,
mild limitation of activity; the patient is comfortable atrest or with mild exertion.
y
 
Class III
:
marked limitation of any activity; the patient is comfortableonly at rest.
y
 
Class IV
:
any physical activity brings on discomfort and symptoms occurat rest.6.
 
AM
E
RIC
A
N
COLL
EGE
O
F
C
A
RDIOLO
GY/
AM
E
RIC
A
N
H
E
A
R
T
 
A
SSOCI
AT
IO
N
 classification
y
 
Stage
A:
Patients at high risk for developing H
F
in the future but nofunctional or structural heart disorder;
y
 
Stage
B:
a structural heart disorder but no symptoms at any stage;
y
 
Stage C
:
previous or current symptoms of heart failure in the context of an underlying structural heart problem
,
but managed with medicaltreatment;
y
 
Stage D
:
advanced disease requiring hospital-based support
,
a hearttransplant or palliative care.

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