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EQTip02

EQTip02

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Published by raj_ferrari

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Published by: raj_ferrari on Apr 29, 2010
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07/12/2010

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How the ground shakes? 
Earthquake Tip 
2
LearningEarthquake DesignandConstruction
Figure 1: Arrival of Seismic Waves at a Site
 
Figure 2:Motions caused by Body and Surface Waves
(
 Adapted from FEMA 99, Non-Technical Explanation of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions)
Seismic Waves
Large strain energy released during an earthquaketravels as seismic waves in all directions through theEarth’s layers, reflecting and refracting at eachinterface. These waves are of two types -
body waves
and
surface waves
; the latter are restricted to near theEarth’s surface (Figure 1). Body waves consist of
Primary Waves (P-waves)
and
Secondary Waves (S-waves)
, and surface waves consist of
Love waves
and
Rayleigh waves
. Under P-waves, material particlesundergo extensional and compressional strains alongdirection of energy transmission, but under S-waves,oscillate at right angles to it (Figure 2). Love wavescause surface motions similar to that by S-waves, butwith no vertical component. Rayleigh wave makes amaterial particle oscillate in an elliptic path in thevertical plane (with horizontal motion along directionof energy transmission).P-waves are fastest, followed in sequence by S-,Love and Rayleigh waves. For example, in granites, P-and S-waves have speeds ~4.8 km/sec and~3.0km/sec, respectively. S-waves do not travelthrough liquids. S-waves in association with effects ofLove waves cause maximum damage to structures bytheir racking motion on the surface in both verticaland horizontal directions. When P- and S-waves reachthe Earth's surface, most of their energy is reflectedback. Some of this energy is returned back to thesurface by reflections at different layers of soil androck. Shaking is more severe (about twice as much) atthe Earth's surface than at substantial depths. This isoften the basis for designing structures buriedunderground for smaller levels of acceleration thanthose above the ground.
Measuring Instruments
The instrument that measures earthquake shaking,a
seismograph
, has three components – the
sensor 
, the
recorder 
and the
timer 
. The principle on which it worksis simple and is explicitly reflected in the earlyseismograph (Figure 3) – a pen attached at the tip of anoscillating simple pendulum (a mass hung by a stringfrom a support) marks on a chart paper that is held ona drum rotating at a constant speed. A magnet aroundthe string provides required damping to control theamplitude of oscillations. The pendulum mass, string,magnet and support together constitute the
sensor 
; thedrum, pen and chart paper constitute the
recorder 
; andthe motor that rotates the drum at constant speedforms the
timer 
.
Direction of Energy Transmission
Side to sideUp and down
P-Waves
Push and pull
CompressionExtension
S-WavesLove Waves
Sideways in horizontal plane
EQ
Surface Waves
Fault Rupture
 
BodyWavesStructureSoilGeologic Strata
Rayleigh Waves
Elliptic in vertical plane

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